Advanced SearchSearch Tips
The Impact of Poverty on Self-Rated Health in Philippines: A Mediated Moderation Model of Health Behaviors and Family and Friend Support
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Health Policy and Management
  • Volume 26, Issue 1,  2016, pp.24-29
  • Publisher : The Korean Society of Health Policy and Administration
  • DOI : 10.4332/KJHPA.2016.26.1.24
 Title & Authors
The Impact of Poverty on Self-Rated Health in Philippines: A Mediated Moderation Model of Health Behaviors and Family and Friend Support
Kim, Jae Woo; Kim, Dohyeong; Nam, Eun Woo;
  PDF(new window)
Background: Socio-economical status, represented by poverty, is a potent factor in predicting health status, because preventable illness and death occurs due to poverty and socio-economical situation. This study aims to provide information towards on the correlation between poverty and self-rated health in consideration of elements of health behaviors and family and friend support in Philippines. Methods: Data was collected on 15th to 28th of February 2011 by using structured questionnaire through interview method. Study area is Antipolo and Tondo in Manila, Philippines. Sample size was 1,100 but only 658 cases was analyzed due to incomplete questionnaire. Results: Results show that the poverty has direct negative influence on self-rated health, while the presence of family and friend support decreased negative influence. And through the analysis of mediated moderation model, similarly poverty has also indirect negative effect on self-rated health by health behaviors and family and friend support. Especially, regular exercise was found to be a major variable that mediates poverty and self-rated health. Conclusion: In conclusion, to improve the self-rated health state of respondents need to provide emotional support especially from family and friends. Also regular exercise should be encouraged by raising health awareness through continuous health education and promotion for the residents in order to develop health behaviors.
Family and friend support;Health behavior;Poverty;Self-rated health;
 Cited by
Park CH. A study on analysis of health determinants and Healthy City Projects: focus on Healthy City Jinju [master's thesis]. Jinju: Gyeongsang National University; 2010.

Wilkinson R, Marmot M. Social determinants of health: the solid facts. 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.

Hart N. Sociology of health and medicine Lancashire: Cauway Books; 1998.

McDonough P, Sacker A, Wiggins RD. Time on my side?: life course trajectories of poverty and health. Soc Sci Med 2005;61(8):1795-1808. DOI: crossref(new window)

Waitzman NJ, Smith KR. Phantom of the area: poverty-area residence and mortality in the United States. Am J Public Health 1998;88(6):973-976. DOI: crossref(new window)

Hatch SL. Conceptualizing and identifying cumulative adversity and protective resources: implications for understanding health inequalities. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2005;60 Spec No 2:130-134. DOI: crossref(new window)

Shuey KM, Willson AE. Cumulative disadvantage and black-white disparities in life-course health trajectories. Res Aging 2008;30(2):200-225. DOI: crossref(new window)

Kahn JR, Fazio EM. Economic status over the life course and racial disparities in health. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2005;60 Spec No 2:76-84. DOI: crossref(new window)

Molarius A, Berglund K, Eriksson C, Lambe M, Nordstrom E, Eriksson HG, et al. Socioeconomic conditions, lifestyle factors, and self-rated health among men and women in Sweden. Eur J Public Health 2007;17(2):125-133. DOI: crossref(new window)

Yao L, Robert SA. The contributions of race, individual socioeconomic status, and neighborhood socioeconomic context on the self-rated health trajectories and mortality of older adults. Res Aging 2008;30(2):251-273. DOI: crossref(new window)

Lee CG. Health inequalities and counter policies in Korea. J Asiat Stud 2006;49(1):66-103.

Kim YH, Cho YT. Impact of area characteristics on the health of vulnerable populations in Seoul. Korea J Popul Stud 2008;31(1):1-26. crossref(new window)

Kim HY. Community inequalities in health: the contextual effect of social capital. Korean J Sociol 2010;44(2):59-92.

Pampel FC, Rogers RG. Socioeconomic status, smoking, and health: a test of competing theories of cumulative advantage. J Health Soc Behav 2004;45(3):306-321. DOI: crossref(new window)

Lynch JW, Kaplan GA, Shema SJ. Cumulative impact of sustained economic hardship on physical, cognitive, psychological, and social functioning. N Engl J Med 1997;337(26):1889-1895. DOI: crossref(new window)

Park ES, Kim SJ, Kim SI, Chun YJ, Lee PS, Kim HJ, et al. A study of factors influencing health promoting behavior and quality of life in the elderly. J Korean Acad Nurs 1998;28(3):638-649. crossref(new window)

Kim SG. The socioeconomic status and the self-reported health of the aged. J Welf Aged 2005;28:187-206.

Asian Development Bank. Metro Manila: Asian Development Bank; 2003.

Philippine National Statistical Coordination Board. Metro Manila: Philippine National Statistical Coordination Board; 2012.

Nam EW, Moon JY, Kim DH, Sim BR, Kim CB, KIm YJ, et al. A study of social capital, health care utilization and health life style in Metro Manila, the Philippines by difference. Int Dev Coop Rev 2014;6(1):87-107.

Nam EW, Kim DH, Moon JY, Sarita D, Chung YI, Kim PS. Review of South Korea's family planning program: implication for the Philippines. Int J Matern Child Health 2014;2(2):55-61. DOI: crossref(new window)

Peltzer K, Pengpid S. Health risk behaviour among in-school adolescents in the Philippines: trends between 2003, 2007 and 2011: a cross-sectional study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2015;13(1):E73. DOI: crossref(new window)

Butrick E, Peabody JW, Solon O, DeSalvo KB, Quimbo SA. A comparison of objective biomarkers with a subjective health status measure among children in the Philippines. Asia Pac J Public Health 2012;24(4):565-576. DOI: crossref(new window)

Jeong AH, Kim HJ, Jeong HJ. A study on the health status, social support and acculturative stress of Filipino marriage-migrant women. J Korea Acad-Ind Coop Soc 2011;12(12):5509-5517.

Bae JS. The actual conditions of health care and problem of Filipino workers [dissertation]. Seoul: Ewha Womans University; 2007.

Lee HI, Nam EW, Song JS. West African pregnancy experienced women's self-rated health and related factors: case of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Health Policy Manag 2014;24(1):85-91. DOI: crossref(new window)

Song YL, Nam EW. The influence of social capital and health behaviors on self-rated health in South Korea. Korean J Health Educ Promot 2009;26(3):1-13.

Shibuya K, Hashimoto H, Yano E. Individual income, income distribution, and self rated health in Japan: cross sectional analysis of nationally representative sample. BMJ 2002;324(7328):16-19. DOI: crossref(new window)

Razzaque A, Nahar L, Akter Khanam M, Kim Streatfield P. Socio-demographic differentials of adult health indicators in Matlab, Bangladesh: self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level. Glob Health Action 2010;3:70-77. DOI:

Bergner M, Rothman ML. Health status measures: an overview and guide for selection. Annu Rev Public Health 1987;8(1):191-210. DOI: crossref(new window)

Idler EL, Benyamini Y. Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. J Health Soc Behav 1997;38(1):21-37. DOI: crossref(new window)

Idler E, Leventhal H, McLaughlin J, Leventhal E. In sickness but not in health: self-ratings, identity, and mortality. J Health Soc Behav 2004;45(3);336-356. DOI: crossref(new window)

Yoon KA, Jin KN, Sung KT. Study of strain, social support, and subjective well-being in the Korean elderly. J Korea Gerontol Soc 1992;12(1);56-64.

Lee SM, Lee SC. A study on alternative conceptualization of poverty. J Korean Reg Dev 2010;19(2):153-178.