Advanced SearchSearch Tips
External Exposure Due to Natural Radionuclides in Building Materials in Korean Dwellings
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
External Exposure Due to Natural Radionuclides in Building Materials in Korean Dwellings
Cho, Yoon Hae; Kim, Chang Jong; Yun, Ju Yong; Cho, Dae-Hyung; Kim, Kwang Pyo;
  PDF(new window)
Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in building materials are main sources of external radiation exposure to the general public. The objective of this study was to assess external radiation dose in Korean dwellings due to NORM in concrete walls. Reference room model for dose assessment was made by analyzing room structure and housing scale of Korean dwellings. In addition, dose assessments were made for varying room sizes. Absorbed doses to air and effective dose rates were calculated using radiation transport code MCNPX. Assuming a reference room of , absorbed dose rates in air were 0.80, 0.97, 0.08 nGy per Bq for uranium series, thorium series, and , respectively. Effective dose rates were 0.57, 0.69, 0.058 nSv per Bq , respectively. Radiation dose resulting from concrete of ceiling and floor increased with room area while radiation dose from concrete of walls decreased with room area. Therefore, total radiation doses were almost the same for the varying room area from 5 to . Effective dose in Korean dwellings was calculated based on measurement data of NORM concentration in concrete and occupancy fraction of Korean population by location. Annual effective dose was 0.59 mSv assuming that indoor occupancy fraction was 0.89 and concentrations of uranium series, thorium series and were 26, 39, 596 Bq , respectively. Finally, annual effective dose in Korean dwellings can be calculated by the following equation: Effective dose=indoor occupancy fraction.
Building material;Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material;NORM;External exposure;
 Cited by
생활주변방사선안전관리법 시행에 따른 항목별 선량 분석,정천수;오현지;이지은;조수민;박소현;

한국방사선학회논문지, 2013. vol.7. 6, pp.377-381 crossref(new window)
부산지역 토양 내 천연방사성핵종 분석 및 유효선량율 평가,김정훈;김창수;임창선;

한국산학기술학회논문지, 2014. vol.15. 6, pp.3658-3666 crossref(new window)
수원시 소재의 한 대학 내 환경방사선량 측정 분석,이인자;정유진;김청경;김희솔;윤현민;박다정;고요한;

대한방사선기술학회지:방사선기술과학, 2014. vol.37. 3, pp.233-238
Evaluation of Radiation effective dose by Naturally Radionuclides in the Soil of Busan, Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, 2014, 15, 6, 3658  crossref(new windwow)
Radioactivity concentration measurement and analysis in construction floor materials of Korea, Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids, 2016, 171, 5-6, 492  crossref(new windwow)
Analysis of Dose by Items According to Act on Safety Control of Radiation Around Living Environment, Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology, 2013, 7, 6, 377  crossref(new windwow)
United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. Vol. I Sources. 2000.

United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR 2008 Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes. Volume I. 2010.

Risica S, Bolzan C, Nuccetelli C. Radioactivity in building materials: room model analysis and experimental methods. Sci. Total Environ. 2001; 272:119-26. crossref(new window)

Allam KA. New model for dwelling dose calculation using monte carlo integration. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 2009;133:153-157. crossref(new window)

Maduar MF, Hiromoto G. Evaluation of indoor gamma radiation dose in dwellings. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 2004;111:221-228. crossref(new window)

Al-Jundi J, Ulanovsky A, Prohl G. Doses of external exposure in Jordan house due to gamma-emitting natural radionuclides in building materials. J. Environ. Radioact. 2009;100:841-846. crossref(new window)

Koblinger, L. Calculation of exposure rates from gamma sources in walls of dwelling rooms. Health Physics. 1978;34:459-463. crossref(new window)

Moharram BM, Suliman MN, Zahran NF, Shennawy SE, El Sayed AR. External exposure doses due to gamma emitting natural radionuclides in some Egyptian building materials. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 2012;70:241-248. crossref(new window)

European Commission. Radiation protection principles concerning the natural radioactivity of building materials. Radiation Protection 112. 1999.

Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority. Radiation dose assessments for materials with elevated natural radioactivity. STUK-B-STO 32. 1995.

Mustonen, R. Methods for evaluation of radiation from building materials. Rad. Prot. Dosim. 1984;7: 235-238.

통계청. 국가통계포털 - 행정구역별 주택현황. 2012.

환경부. 한국형 노출지수 개발 및 운영체계 구축. GOVP1200812666. (2007).

Lee JH, Lee C. Analytical study for the plan of unit household in national housing scale - Oriented on the cases of Korean housing corporation since 2005: Focused on analysing area. Journal of the Korean Institute of Interior Design. 2010;19: 180-189.

Hubbell JH, Seltzer SM. Tables of x-ray mass attenuation coefficients and mass energyabsorption coefficients from 1 keV to 20 MeV for elements Z=1 to 92 and 48 additional substance. National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2004.

Al-Sulaiti H, Nasir T, Al Mugren KS, Alkhomashi N, Al-Dahan N, Al-Dosari M, Bradley DA, Bukhari S, Matthews M, Regan PH. Determination of the natural radioactivity levels in north west of Dukhan, Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 2011;70:1344- 1350.

한국토지주택공사. 주택분야 건출설계 지침. 2010.

International Commission on Radiological Protection. The 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 103. Oxford; Pergamon Press. 2007.

International Commission on Radiological Protection. Adult reference computational phantoms. ICRP Publication 110. Oxford; Pergamon Press. 2009.

International Commission on Radiological Protection. Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures. ICRP Publication 116. Oxford; Pergamon Press. 2010.

International Commission on Radiological Protection. Conversion coefficients for use in radiological protection against external radiation. ICRP Publication 74. Oxford; Pergamon Press. 1997.

Lee SC, Kim CK, Lee DM, Kang HD. Natural radionuclides contents and radon exhalation rates in building materials used in South Korea. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 2001;94:269-274. crossref(new window)

Trevisi R, Risica S, D'Alessandro M, Paradiso D, Nuccetelli C. Natural radioactivity in building materials in the European Union: a database and an estimate of radiological significance. J. Env. Radioact. 2012;105:11-20. crossref(new window)

한국원자력안전기술원. 우리나라의 방사선 환경. KINS/GR-256. 2009.