The Evaluation and Development of Head and Neck Radiation Protective Device for Chest Radiography in 10 Years Children

Title & Authors
The Evaluation and Development of Head and Neck Radiation Protective Device for Chest Radiography in 10 Years Children
Lee, Jun Ho; Lim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Seung Yeol;

Abstract
The frequency of diagnostic radiation examinations in medical institutions has recently increased to 220 million cases in 2011, and the annual exposure dose per capita was 1.4 mSv, 51% and 35% respectively, compared to those in 2007. The number of chest radiography was found to be 27.59% of them, the highest frequency of normal radiography. In this study, we developed a shielding device to minimize radiation exposure by shielding areas of the body which are unnecessary for image interpretation, during the chest radiography. And in order to verify its usefulness, we also measured the difference in entrance surface dose (ESD) and the absorbed dose, before and after using the device, by using an international standard pediatric (10 years) phantom and a glass dosimeter. In addition, we calculated the effective dose by using a Monte Carlo simulation-based program (PCXMC 2.0.1) and evaluated the reduction ratio indirectly by comparing lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence (LAR). When using the protective device, the ESD decreased by 86.36% on average, nasal cavity $\small{0.55{\mu}Sv}$ (74.06%), thyroid $\small{1.43{\mu}Sv}$ (95.15%), oesophagus $\small{6.35{\mu}Sv}$ (78.42%) respectively, and the depth dose decreased by 72.30% on average, the cervical spine(upper spine) $\small{1.23{\mu}Sv}$ (89.73%), salivary gland $\small{0.5{\mu}Sv}$ (92.31%), oesophagus $\small{3.85{\mu}Sv}$ (59.39%), thyroid $\small{2.02{\mu}Sv}$ (73.53%), thoracic vertebrae(middle spine) $\small{5.68{\mu}Sv}$ (54.01%) respectively, so that we could verify the usefulness of the shielding mechanism. In addition, the effective dose decreased by 11.76% from $\small{8.33{\mu}Sv}$ to $\small{7.35{\mu}Sv}$ before and after wearing the device, and in LAR assessment, we found that thyroid cancer decreased to male 0.14 people (95.12%) and female 0.77 people (95.16%) per one million 10-year old children, and general cancers decreased to male 0.14 people (11.70%) and female 0.25 people (11.70%). Although diagnostic radiation examinations are necessary for healthcare such as the treatment of diseases, based on the ALARA concept, we should strive to optimize medical radiation by using this shielding device actively in the areas of the body unnecessary for the diagnosis.
Keywords
Entrance surface dose (ESD);Lifetime attributable risk (LAR);PCXMC 2.0.1 Shielding device;Chest radiography;
Language
Korean
Cited by
References
1.
Jo DH, Kim JR, Han SJ, Jang GH, Lee BH, Kim GH, Han SE. The study on regulatory framework to optimize medical exposure. Ministry of Education and Science Technology. 2011.

2.
NCRP. Ionizing radiation exposure of the population of the United States. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. NCRP Report No. 160. 2009.

3.
Kim HS, Park SM, Lee SY, Baek SM, Chae SY, Park JH, Jeong IS, Kim JH, Son MJ, Shin JH, Park SY, Lee JH, Kim JR. Development of the diagnostic reference level of pediatric radiography (10 years old). Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. 2014.

4.
UNSCEAR. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR 2008 Report Vol I. 2010.

5.
Kim GP, Lee JY. Radiation exposure of Korean population from medical diagnostic examinations. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. 2013.

6.
Yu GH. Developement of guideline and estimation on the patient dose in chest radiography. Korea Food and Drug Administration. 2006.

7.
Jo PG. Distribution of the scatter ray on chest X-ray examinations. Journal of Korea Contents Association. 2012;12(7):258.

8.
ICRP. ICRP publication 103 : 2007 Recommendations of the international commission on radiological protection. Oxford; Pergamon Press. Annals of the ICRP 37(2-4). 2007.

9.
National research council of the National academies. Health risks from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Washington DC; National Academies Press. BEIR VII phase 2. 2006.

10.
Kang YH, Kim BS, Park JS. Radiation dose and estimate of lifetime attributable risk of cancer from coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention. Journal of Radiological Science and Technology. 2010;33(3):218.

11.
Gang YH, Park JS. Radiation dose and lifetime attributable risk of cancer estimates in 64-slice multidetector computed tomography. Journal of Korea Contents Association. 2011;11(4):250.

12.
Seong DU. Radiation exposure in diagnostic areas: issues and countermeasures. Journal of the Korean Medical Association. 2011;54(12):1247.