Tension Stiffening Effect for Reinforced Concrete Members ;;;;
This paper presents tension stiffening effect of Reinforced concrete members obtained from experimental results on direct tension and bending. From the direct tension test program, crack patterns were investigated with tension softening behaviors of concrete. Tension stiffening effects and losses of strain energy were, also, analyzed from the load-deflection curve with the main experimental variables such as concrete strength, yielding stress and reinforcement ratio of rebar. Tension stiffening effect of RC members increase linearly until the first crack initiate, decrease inversely with number of cracks, and then decrease rapidly when splitting cracks are happened. The tension stiffening effect is shown to be more important at the member of lower reinforcement than that of higher. Therefore, it necessitates to consider the tension stiffening effects at a nonlinear analysis. From the above analysis, a tension stiffening model of concrete is proposed and verified by applying it to bending members. From the numerical analysis by finite element approach, it is shown that the proposed model evaluates a little higher in analyzing at nonlinear region of high strength concrete, but, perform satisfactorily in general.