Advanced SearchSearch Tips
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
  PDF(new window)
We study an association between the duration of solar activity and characteristics of the latitude distribution of sunspots by means of center-of-latitude (COL) of sunspots observed during the period from 1878 to 2008 spanning solar cycles 12 to 23. We first calculate COL by taking the area-weighted mean latitude of sunspots for each calendar month to determine the latitudinal distribution of COL of sunspots appearing in the long and short cycles separately. The data set for the long solar cycles consists of the solar cycles 12, 13, 14, 20, and 23. The short solar cycles include the solar cycles 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, and 22. We then fit a double Gaussian function to compare properties of the latitudinal distribution resulting from the two data sets. Our main findings are as follows: (1) The main component of the double Gaussian function does not show any significant change in the central position and in the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM), except in the amplitude. They are all centered at ~ 11° with FWHM of ~ 5°. (2) The secondary component of the double Gaussian function at higher latitudes seems to differ in that even though their width remains fixed at ~ 4°, their central position peaks at ~ 22.1° for the short cycles and at ~ 20.7° for the long cycles with quite small errors. (3) No significant correlation could be established between the duration of an individual cycle and the parameters of the double Gaussian. Finally, we conclude by briefly discussing the implications of these findings on the issue of the cycle 4 concerning a lost cycle.
Sun;Sunspots;Data analysis;
 Cited by
Antalova, A., & Gnevyshev, M. N. 1983, Latitudinal Distribution of Sunspot Areas during the Period 1874-1976, CoSka, 11, 63

Arlt, R. 2008, Digitization of Sunspot Drawings by Staudacher in 1749-1796, Sol. Phys., 247, 399 crossref(new window)

Arlt, R. 2009a, The Solar Observations at Armagh Observatory in 1795-1797, Astron. Nacht., 330, 311 crossref(new window)

Arlt, R. 2009b, The Butterfly Diagram in the Eighteenth Century, Sol. Phys., 255, 143 crossref(new window)

Bai, T., & Sturrock, P. A. 1991, The 154-day and Related Periodicities of Solar Activity as Subharmonics of a Fundamental Period, Nature, 350, 141 crossref(new window)

Bai, T., & Sturrock, P. A. 1993, Evidence for a Fundamental Period of the Sun and its Relation to the 154 day Complex of Periodicities, ApJ, 409, 476 crossref(new window)

Carbonell, M., Oliver, R., & Ballester, J. L. 1993, On the Asymmetry of Solar Activity, A&A, 274, 497

Chang, H.-Y. 2008, Stochastic Properties in North-South Asymmetry of Sunspot Area, New Astron., 13, 195 crossref(new window)

Chang, H.-Y. 2009, Periodicity of North-South Asymmetry of Sunspot Area Revisited: Cepstrum Analysis, New Astron., 14, 133 crossref(new window)

Chang, H.-Y. 2011, Correlation of Parameters Characterizing the Latitudinal Distribution of Sunspots, New Astron., 16, 456 crossref(new window)

Chang, H.-Y. 2012, Bimodal Distribution of Area-weighted Latitude of Sunspots and Solar North-South Asymmetry, New Astron., 17, 247 crossref(new window)

Cho, I.-H., & Chang, H.-Y. 2011, Latitudinal Distribution of Sunspots Revisited, JASS, 28, 1

Cho, I.-H., Kwak, Y.-S., Chang, H.-Y., Cho, K.-S., Park, Y.-D., & Choi, H.-S. 2011, Dependence of GCRs Influx on the Solar North-South Asymmetry, JASTP, 73, 1723

Cho, I.-H., Bong, S.-C., Cho, K.-S., Lee, J., Kim, R.-S., Park, Y.-D., & Kim, Y.-H. 2014a, Statistical Study on Personal Reduction Coefficients of Sunspot Numbers Since 1981, JKAS, 47, 255

Cho, I.-H., Hwang, J., & Park, Y.-D. 2014b, Revisiting Solar and Heliospheric 1.3-Year Signals during 1970 - 2007, Sol. Phys., 289, 707 crossref(new window)

Chowdhury, P., Choudhary, D. P., & Gosain, S. 2013, A Study of the Hemispheric Asymmetry of Sunspot Area during Solar Cycles 23 and 24, ApJ, 768, 188 crossref(new window)

Donner, R., & Thiel, M. 2007, Scale-resolved Phase Coherence Analysis of Hemispheric Sunspot Activity: A New Look at the North-South Asymmetry, A&A, 475, L33 crossref(new window)

Gigolashvili, M. S., Japaridze, D. R., & Kukhianidze, V. J. 2005, Variations of the Solar Differential Rotation Associated with Polarity Reversal, Sol. Phys., 231, 23 crossref(new window)

Gleissberg, W. 1971, The Probable Behaviour of Sunspot Cycle 21, Sol. Phys., 21, 240 crossref(new window)

Gnevyshev, M. N., & Ohl, A. I. 1948, On the 22-year Cycle of Solar Activity, AJ, 38, 15

Gopalswamy, N., Yashiro, S., Makela, P., Michalek, G., Shibasaki, K., & Hathaway, D. H. 2012, Behavior of Solar Cycles 23 and 24 Revealed by Microwave Observations, ApJ, 750, L42 crossref(new window)

Hathaway, D. H., Nandy, D., Wilson, R. M., & Reichmann, E. J. 2003, Evidence That a Deep Meridional Flow Sets the Sunspot Cycle Period, ApJ, 589, 665 crossref(new window)

Howe, R., Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., Hill, F., Komm, R. W., Larsen, R. M., Schou, J., Thompson, M. J., & Toomre, J. 2000, Time Variability of Rotation in Solar Convection Zone From SOI-MDI, Sol. Phys., 533, 163

Javaraiah, J. 2007, North-South Asymmetry in Solar Activity: Predicting the Amplitude of the Next Solar Cycle, MNRAS, 377, 34 crossref(new window)

Javaraiah, J. 2008, Predicting the Amplitude of a Solar Cycle Using the North - South Asymmetry in the Previous Cycle: II. An Improved Prediction for Solar Cycle 24, Sol. Phys., 252, 419 crossref(new window)

Javaraiah, J. 2015, Long-term Variations in the North-South Asymmetry of Solar Activity and Solar Cycle Prediction, III: Prediction for the Amplitude of Solar Cycle 25, New Astron., 34, 54 crossref(new window)

Kane, R. P. 2002, Some Implications Using the Group Sunspot Number Reconstruction, Sol. Phys., 205, 383 crossref(new window)

Kim, B.-Y., & Chang, H.-Y. 2011, Alternating Sunspot Area and Hilbert Transform Analysis, JASS, 28, 261

Knaack, R., Stenflo, J. O., & Berdyugina, S. V. 2005, Evolution and Rotation of Large-scale Photospheric Magnetic Fields of the Sun during Cycles 21-23. Periodicities, North-South Asymmetries and R-mode Signatures, A&A, 438, 1067 crossref(new window)

Krivova, N. A., & Solanki, S. K. 2002, The 1.3-year and 156-day Periodicities in Sunspot Data: Wavelet Analysis Suggests a Common Origin, A&A 394, 701 crossref(new window)

Krivova, N. A., Solanki, S. K., & Beer, J. 2002, Was One Sunspot Cycle in the 18th Century Really Lost?, A&A 396, 235 crossref(new window)

Li, K. J. 2009, Systematic Time Delay of Hemispheric Solar Activity, Sol. Phys., 255, 289 crossref(new window)

Li, K. J. 2010, Latitude Migration of Solar Filaments, MNRAS, 405, 1040 crossref(new window)

Li, K. J., Yun, H. S., & Gu, X. M. 2001, Latitude Migration of Sunspot Groups, AJ, 122, 2115 crossref(new window)

Li, K. J., Liang, H. F., Yun, H. S., & Gu, X. M. 2002, Statistical Behavior of Sunspot Groups on the Solar Disk, Sol. Phys., 205, 361 crossref(new window)

Li, K. J., Wang, J. X., Zhan, L. S., Yun, H. S., Liang, H. F., Zhao, H. J., & Gu, X. M. 2003, On the Latitudinal Distribution of Sunspot Groups over a Solar Cycle, Sol. Phys., 215, 99 crossref(new window)

Li, K. J., Liang, H.-F., & Feng, W. 2010, Phase Shifts of the Paired Wings of Butterfly Diagrams, RAA, 10, 1177

Maunder, E.W. 1904, Note on the Distribution of Sun-spots in Heliographic Latitude, 1874-1902, MNRAS, 64, 747 crossref(new window)

Meunier, N., Nesme-Ribes, E., & Collin, B. 1997, Cycle 19 Facula Dynamics. II. Meridional Circulation, RMS Velocity, and Reynolds Stresses, A&A, 319, 683

Miletskii, E. V., & Ivanov, V. G. 2009, Latitude Characteristics of the Sunspot Formation Zone and the 11-year Solar Activity Cycle, AR, 53, 857

Norton, A. A., & Gilman, P. A. 2004, Magnetic Field-Minimum Intensity Correlation in Sunspots: A Tool for Solar Dynamo Diagnostics, ApJ, 603, 348 crossref(new window)

Obridko, B. N., & Shelting, B. D., 2007, Occurrence of the 1.3-year Periodicity in the Large-scale Solar Magnetic Field for 8 Solar Cycles, AdSpR, 40, 1006

Oliver, R., & Ballester, J. L. 1994, The North-South Asymmetry of Sunspot Areas during Solar Cycle 22, Sol. Phys., 152, 481 crossref(new window)

Pandey, K. K., Yellaiah, G., & Hiremath, K. M. 2015, Latitudinal Distribution of Soft X-ray Flares and Dispairty in Butterfly Diagram, Ap&SS, 356, 215 crossref(new window)

Pesnell, W. D. 2012, Solar Cycle Predictions (Invited Review), Sol. Phys., 281, 507

Petrovay, K. 2010, Solar Cycle Prediction, LRSP, 7, 6

Pulkkinen, P. J., Brooke, J., Pelt, J., & Tuominen, I. 1999, Long-Term Variation of Sunspot Latitudes, A&A, 341, L43

Rieger, E., Kanbach, G., Reppin, C., Share, G. H., Forrest, D. J., & Chupp, E. L. 1984, A 154-day Periodicity in the Occurrence of Hard Solar Flares?, Nat., 312, 623 crossref(new window)

Roy, J. R. 1977, The North-South Distribution of Major Solar Flare Events, Sunspot Magnetic Classes and Sunspot Areas (1955-1974), Sol. Phys., 52, 53 crossref(new window)

Schwabe, M. 1843, Die Sonne. Von Herrn Hofrath Schwabe, AN, 20, 283

Solanki, S. K., Wenzler, T., & Schmitt, D. 2008, Moments of the Latitudinal Dependence of the Sunspot Cycle: A New Diagnostic of Dynamo Models, A&A, 483, 623 crossref(new window)

Swinson, D. B., Koyama, H., & Saito, T. 1986, Long-Term Variations in North-South Asymmetry of Solar Activity, Sol. Phys., 106, 35 crossref(new window)

Temmer, M., Veronig, A., & Hanslmeier, A. 2002, What Causes the 24-Day Period Observed in Solar Flares?, A&A, 390, 707 crossref(new window)

Temmer, M., Rybák, J., Bendik, P., Veronig, A., Vogler, F., Otruba, W., Pötzi, W., & Hanslmeier, A. 2006, Hemispheric Sunspot Numbers Rn and Rs from 1945-2004: Catalogue and N-S Asymmetry Analysis for Solar Cycles 18-23, A&A, 447, 735 crossref(new window)

Ternullo, M. 1997, Pulses of Solar Activity and Related Photospheric Latitudes, Sol. Phys., 172, 37 crossref(new window)

Ternullo, M. 2001, Drawing Butterfly Wings, MmSAI, 72, 565

Ternullo, M. 2007, The Butterfly Diagram Fine Structure, Sol. Phys., 240, 153 crossref(new window)

Ternullo, M. 2010, The Butterfly Diagram Internal Structure, Ap&SS, 328, 301 crossref(new window)

Ternullo, M. 2013, The Butterfly Diagram Internal Structure, JPhCS, 440, 2021

Usoskin, I. G., Mursula, K., & Kovaltsov, G. A. 2001, Was One Sunspot Cycle Lost in Late XVIII Century?, A&A, 370, L31 crossref(new window)

Usoskin, I. G., Mursula, K., & Kovaltsov, G. A. 2002, Lost Sunspot Cycle in the Beginning of Dalton Minimum: New Evidence and Consequences, GRL, 29, 2183 crossref(new window)

Usoskin, I. G., Mursula, K., & Kovaltsov, G. A. 2003, The Lost Sunspot Cycle: Reanalysis of Sunspot Statistics, A&A, 403, 743 crossref(new window)

Usoskin, I. G., Mursula, K., Arlt, R., & Kovaltsov, G. A. 2009, A Solar Cycle Lost in 1793-1800: Early Sunspot Observations Resolve the Old Mystery, ApJ, 700, L154 crossref(new window)

Waldmeier, M. 1935, Neue Eigenschaften der Sonnenfleckenkurve, Astron. Mitt. Zurich, 14, 105

Waldmeier, M. 1939, Die Zonenwanderung der Sonnenflecken, Astron. Mitt. Zurich, 14, 470

Waldmeier, M. 1971, The Asymmetry of Solar Activity in the Years 1959-1969, Sol. Phys., 20, 332 crossref(new window)

Yi, W. 1992, The North-South Asymmetry of Sunspot Distribution, JRASC, 86, 89

Zaatri, A., Komm, R., Gonzalez Hernandez, I., Howe, R., & Corbard, T. 2006, North South Asymmetry of Zonal and Meridional Flows Determined From Ring Diagram Analysis of Gong ++ Data, Sol. Phys., 236, 227 crossref(new window)

Zolotova, N. V., & Ponyavin, D. I. 2006, Phase Asynchrony of the North-South Sunspot Activity, A&A, 449, L1 crossref(new window)

Zolotova, N. V., & Ponyavin, D. I. 2007, Was the Unusual Solar Cycle at the End of the XVIII Century a Result of Phase Asynchronization?, A&A, 470, L17 crossref(new window)