JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
SEJONG OPEN CLUSTER SURVEY (SOS) - V. THE ACTIVE STAR FORMING REGION SH 2-255 - 257
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
SEJONG OPEN CLUSTER SURVEY (SOS) - V. THE ACTIVE STAR FORMING REGION SH 2-255 - 257
LIM, BEOMDU; SUNG, HWANKYUNG; HUR, HYEONOH; LEE, BYEONG-CHEOL; BESSELL, MICHAEL S.; KIM, JINYOUNG S.; LEE, KANG HWAN; PARK, BYEONG-GON; JEONG, GWANGHUI;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
There is much observational evidence that active star formation is taking place in the Hii regions Sh 2-255 – 257. We present a photometric study of this star forming region (SFR) using imaging data obtained in passbands from the optical to the mid-infrared, in order to study the star formation process. A total of 218 members were identified using various selection criteria based on their observational properties. The SFR is reddened by at least E(B −V ) = 0.8 mag, and the reddening law toward the region is normal (RV = 3.1). From the zero-age main sequence fitting method it is confirmed that the SFR is 2.1 ± 0.3 kpc from the Sun. The median age of the identified members is estimated to be about 1.3 Myr from a comparison of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD) with stellar evolutionary models. The initial mass function (IMF) is derived from the HRD and the near-infrared (J, J −H) color-magnitude diagram. The slope of the IMF is about Γ = −1.6 ± 0.1, which is slightly steeper than that of the Salpeter/Kroupa IMF. It implies that low-mass star formation is dominant in the SFR. The sum of the masses of all the identified members provides the lower limit of the cluster mass (169M). We also analyzed the spectral energy distribution (SED) of pre-main sequence stars using the SED fitting tool of Robitaille et al., and confirm that there is a significant discrepancy between stellar mass and age obtained from two different methods based on the SED fitting tool and the HRD.
 Keywords
open clusters and associations;individual;Sh 2-255 - 257 (IC 2162) - dust, extinction - stars;luminosity function, mass function;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Armandroff, T. E., & Herbst, W. 1981, Distances to 14 Molecular Clouds (Including Two Associated with Supernova Remnants) by a New Technique, AJ, 86, 1923 crossref(new window)

2.
Beichman, C. A., Becklin, E. E., & Wynn-Williams, C. G. 1979, New Multiple Systems in Molecular Clouds, ApJ, 232, 47 crossref(new window)

3.
Bell, C. P. M., Naylor, T., Mayne, N. J., Jeffries, R. D., & Littlefair, S. P. 2013, Pre-Main-Sequence Isochrones - II. Revisiting Star and Planet Formation Time-Scales, MNRAS, 434, 806 crossref(new window)

4.
Bessell, M. S. 1995, The Temperature Scale for Cool Dwarfs, in Proc. ESO Workshop, The Bottom of the Main Sequence and Beyond, ed. C. G. Tinney (Berlin: Springer), 123

5.
Bessell, M. S., Castelli, F., & Plez, B. 1998, Model Atmospheres Broad-Band Colors, Bolometric Corrections and Temperature Calibrations for O - M Stars, A&A, 333, 231

6.
Bieging, J. H., Peters, W. L., Vilaro, B. V., Schlottman, K., & Kulesa, C. 2009, Sequential Star Formation in the Sh 254-258 Molecular Cloud: Heinrich Hertz Telescope Maps of CO J = 2 − 1 and 3 − 2 Emission, AJ, 138, 975 crossref(new window)

7.
Blair, G. N., Peters, W. L., & vanden Bout, P. A. 1975, Strong Molecular Line Emission Associated with Small Halpha Emission Regions, ApJ, 200, L161 crossref(new window)

8.
Broos, P. B., Getman, K. V., Povich, M. S., Townsley, L. K., Feigelson, E. D., & Garmire, G. P. 2011, A Naive Bayes Source Classifier for X-Ray Sources, ApJS, 194, 4 crossref(new window)

9.
Caramazza, M., Micela, G., Prisinzano, L., Sciortino, S., Damiani, F., Favata, F., Stauffer, J. R., Vallenari, A., & Wolk, S. J. 2012, Star Formation in the Outer Galaxy: Coronal Properties of NGC 1893, A&A, 539, 74 crossref(new window)

10.
Chavarría, L. A., Allen, L. E., Hora, J. L., Brunt, C. M., & Fazio, G. G. 2008, Spitzer Observations of the Massive Star-Forming Complex S254-S258: Structure and Evolution, ApJ, 682, 445 crossref(new window)

11.
Chavarría-K, C., de Lara, E., & Hasse, I. 1987, Eight-Colour Photometry of Stars Associated with Selected Sharpless H II Regions at L exp II of about 190 deg - S 252, S 254, S 255, S 257, and S 261, A&A, 171, 216

12.
Draine, B. T. 2003, Interstellar Dust Grains, ARA&A, 41, 241 crossref(new window)

13.
Ekström, S., Georgy, C., Eggenberger, P., et al. 2012, Grids of Stellar Models with Rotation. I. Models from 0.8 to 120 M⊙ at Solar Metallicity (Z = 0.014), A&A, 537, 146 crossref(new window)

14.
Elmegreen B. G., & Lada C. J. 1977, Sequential Formation of Subgroups in OB Associations, ApJ, 214, 725 crossref(new window)

15.
Evans, N. J., II., Beckwith, S., & Blair, G. N. 1977, The Energetics of Molecular Clouds. I - Methods of Analysis and Application to the S255 Molecular Cloud, ApJ, 217, 448 crossref(new window)

16.
Fitzpatrick, E. L., & Massa, D. 2007, An Analysis of the Shapes of Interstellar Extinction Curve. V. The IRThrough-UV Curve Morphology, ApJ, 663, 320 crossref(new window)

17.
Flaccomio, E., Micela, G., Sciortino, S., Favata, F., Corbally, C., & Tomaney, A. 1999, BV RI photometry of the Star-Forming Region NGC 2264: the Initial Mass Function and Star-Forming Rate, A&A, 345, 521

18.
Georgelin, Y. M., Georgelin, Y. P., & Roux, S. 1973, Observations de nouvelles régions H II galactiques et d’étoiles excitatrices, A&A, 25, 337

19.
Getman, K. V., Broos, P. S., Feigelson, E. D., Townsley, L. K., Povich, M. S., Garmire, G. P., Montmerle, T., Yonekura, Y., & Fukui, Y. 2011, Source Contamination in X-Ray Studies of Star-Forming Regions: Application to the Chandra Carina Complex Project, ApJS, 194, 3 crossref(new window)

20.
Goddi, C., Moscadelli, L., Sanna, A., Cesaroni, R., & Minier, V. 2007, Associations of H2O and CH3OH Masers at Milli-Arcsec Angular Resolution in Two High-Mass YSOs, A&A, 461, 1027 crossref(new window)

21.
Greve A. 2010, Extinction AV , R towards Emission Nebulae Derived from Common upper Level Paschen-Balmer Hydrogen Lines, A&A, 518, 62 crossref(new window)

22.
Guetter, H. H., & Vrba, F. J. 1989, Reddening and Polarimetric Studies toward IC 1805, AJ, 98, 611 crossref(new window)

23.
Howard, E. M., Pipher, J. L., & Forrest, W. J. 1997, S255-2: The Formation of a Stellar Cluster, ApJ, 481, 327 crossref(new window)

24.
Hunter, D. A., & Massey, P. 1990, Small Galactic H II Regions. I - Spectral Classifications of Massive Stars, AJ, 99, 846 crossref(new window)

25.
Hur, H., Park, B.-G., Sung, H., Bessell, M. S., Lim, B., Chun, M.-Y., & Sohn, S. T. 2015, Reddening, Distance, and Stellar Content of the Young Open Cluster Westerlund 2, MNRAS, 446, 3797 crossref(new window)

26.
Hur, H., Sung, H., & Bessell, M. S. 2012, Distance and the Initial Mass Function of Young Open Clusters in the η Carina Nebula: Tr 14 and Tr 16, AJ, 143, 41 crossref(new window)

27.
Jaffe, D. T., Davidson, J. A., Dragovan, M., & Hildebrand, R. H. 1984, Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Observations of the Multiple Cores in S255,W3, and OMC-1 - Evidence for Fragmentation?, ApJ, 284, 637 crossref(new window)

28.
Kim, H., Nakajima, Y., Sung, H., Moon, D.-S., & Koo, B.-C. 2007, A near-Infrared Study of the Highly-Obscured Active Star-Forming Region W51B, JKAS, 40, 17

29.
Kim, K.-M., Han, I., Valyavin, G. G., et al. 2007, The BOES Spectropolarimeter for Zeeman Measurements of Stellar Magnetic Fields, PASP, 119, 1052 crossref(new window)

30.
Kroupa, P. 2001, On the Variation of the Initial Mass Function, MNRAS, 322, 231 crossref(new window)

31.
Lada, C., & Lada, E. 2003, Embedded Clusters in Molecular Clouds, ARA&A, 41, 57 crossref(new window)

32.
Lada, C. J., Muench, A. A., Haisch K. E., Jr., Lada, E. A., Alves, J. F., Tollestrup, E. V., & Willner, S. P. 2000, Infrared L-Band Observations of the Trapezium Cluster: A Census of Circumstellar Disks and Candidate Protostars, AJ, 120, 3162 crossref(new window)

33.
Landolt, A. U. 1992, UBV RI Photometric Standard Stars in the Magnitude Range 11.5-16.0 around the Celestial Equator, AJ, 104, 340 crossref(new window)

34.
Lefloch B., & Lazareff, B. 1994, Cometary Globules. 1: Formation, Evolution and Morphology, A&A, 289, 559

35.
Lim, B., Chun, M.-Y., Sung, H., Park, B.-G., Lee, J.-J., Shon, S. T., Hur, H., & Bessell, M. S. 2013, The Starburst Cluster Westerlund 1: The Initial Mass Function and Mass Segregation, AJ, 145, 46 crossref(new window)

36.
Lim, B., Sung, H., Bessell, M. S., Kim, J. S., Hur, H., & Park, B.-G. 2015, Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS) - IV. The Young Open Clusters NGC 1624 and NGC 1931, AJ, 149, 127 crossref(new window)

37.
Lim, B., Sung, H., Karimov, R., & Ibrahimov, M. 2011, Sejong Open Cluster Survey. I. NGC 2353, JKAS, 44, 39 crossref(new window)

38.
Lim, B., Sung, H., Kim, J. S., Bessell, M. S., & Karimov, R., 2014a, Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS) - II. IC 1848 Cluster in the H II Region W5 West, MNRAS, 438, 1451 crossref(new window)

39.
Lim, B., Sung, H., Kim, J. S., Bessell, M. S., & Park, B.-G. 2014b, Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS) - III. The Young Open Cluster NGC 1893 in the H II Region W8, MNRAS, 443, 454 crossref(new window)

40.
Lo, K. Y., & Burke, B. F. 1973, H2O Sources in Sharpless H II Regions, A&A, 26, 487

41.
Menzies, J. W., Marang, F., Laing, J. D., Coulson, I. M., & Engelbrecht, C. A. 1991, UBV(RI)c Photometry of Equatorial Standard Stars - A Direct Comparison between the Northern and Southern Systems, MNRAS, 248, 642 crossref(new window)

42.
Minier, V., Burton, M. G., Hill, T., Pestalozzi, M. R., Purcell, C. R., Garay, G., Walsh, A. J., & Longmore, S. 2005, Star-Forming Protoclusters Associated with Methanol Masers, A&A, 429, 945 crossref(new window)

43.
Minier, V., Peretto, N., Longmore, S. N., Burton, M. G., Cesaroni, R., Goddi, C., Pestalozzi, M. R., & André, P. 2007, Anatomy of the S255S257 Complex Triggered High-Mass Star Formation, in Proc. IAU Symp. 237, Triggered Star Formation in a Turbulent ISM, ed. B. Elmegreen & J. Palous (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press), 160

44.
Moffat, A. F. J., Jackson, P. D., & Fitzgerald, M. P. 1979, The Rotation and Structure of the Galaxy beyond the Solar Circle. I - Photometry and Spectroscopy of 276 Stars in 45 H II Regions and Other Young Stellar Groups toward the Galactic Anticentre, A&AS, 38, 197

45.
Morris, M., Palmer, P., Turner, B. E., & Zuckerman, B. 1974, Millimeter-Wavelength Molecular Lines and Far-Infrared Sources, ApJ, 191, 349 crossref(new window)

46.
Mucciarelli, P., Preibisch, T., & Zinnecker, H. 2011, Revealing the “Missing” Low-Mass Stars in the S254-S258 Star Forming Region by Deep X-Ray Imaging, A&A, 533, 121 crossref(new window)

47.
Park, B.-G., & Sung, H. 2002, UBV I and Hα Photometry of the Young Open Cluster NGC 2244, AJ, 123, 892 crossref(new window)

48.
Park, B.-G., Sung, H., Bessell, M. S., & Kang, Y. H. 2000, The Pre-Main-Sequence Stars and Initial Mass Function of NGC 2264, AJ, 120, 894 crossref(new window)

49.
Pismis, P., & Hasse, I. 1976, Study of a Triple Emission Nebula in Orion, Ap&SS, 45, 79 crossref(new window)

50.
Porras, A., Christopher, M., Allen, L., et al. 2003, A Catalog of Young Stellar Groups and Clusters within 1 kiloparsec of the Sun, AJ, 126, 1916 crossref(new window)

51.
Robitaille, T. P., Whitney, B. A., Indebetouw, R., & Wood, K. 2007, Interpreting Spectral Energy Distributions from Young Stellar Objects. II. Fitting Observed SEDs Using a Large Grid of Precomputed Models, ApJS, 169, 328 crossref(new window)

52.
Russeil, D., Adami, C., & Georgelin, Y. M. 2007, Revised Distances of Northern HII Regions, A&A, 470, 161 crossref(new window)

53.
Salpeter, E. E. 1955, The Luminosity Function and Stellar Evolution, ApJ, 121, 161 crossref(new window)

54.
Sharpless, S. 1959, A Catalogue of H II Regions, ApJS, 4, 257 crossref(new window)

55.
Siess, L., Dufour, E., & Forestini, M. 2000, An Internet Server for Pre-Main Sequence Tracks of Low- and Intermediate-Mass Stars, A&A, 358, 593

56.
Skrutskie, M. F., et al. 2006, The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), AJ, 131, 1163 crossref(new window)

57.
Sota, A., Maíz, A. J., Walborn, N. R., Alfaro, E. J., Barbá, R. H., Morrell, N. I., Gamen, R. C., & Arias, J. I. 2011, The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey. I. Classification System and Bright Northern Stars in the Blue-Violet at R ∼ 2500, ApJS, 193, 24 crossref(new window)

58.
Sung, H., & Bessell, M. S. 2004, The Initial Mass Function and Stellar Content of NGC 3603, AJ, 127, 1014 crossref(new window)

59.
Sung, H., & Bessell, M. S. 2010, The Initial Mass Function and Young Brown Dwarf Candidates in NGC 2264 IV. The Initial Mass Function and Star Formation History, AJ, 140, 2070 crossref(new window)

60.
Sung, H., & Bessell, M. S. 2014, The Interstellar Reddening Law within 3kpc from the Sun, in ASP Conf. Ser. 482, the 10th Pacific Rim Conference on Stellar Astrophysics, ed. H.-W. Lee, Young Woon Kang, and Kam-Ching Leung (San Francisco, CA: ASP), 275

61.
Sung, H., Bessell, M. S., & Chun, M.-Y. 2004, The Initial Mass Function and Young Brown Dwarf Candidates in NGC 2264. I. The Initial Mass Function around S Monocerotis, AJ, 128, 1684 crossref(new window)

62.
Sung, H., Bessell, M. S., Chun, M.-Y., Karimov, R., & Ibrahimov, M. 2008, The Initial Mass Function and Young Brown Dwarf Candidates in NGC 2264 III. Photometric Data, AJ, 135, 441 crossref(new window)

63.
Sung, H., Bessell M. S., & Lee, S.-W. 1997, UBV RI Hα Photometry of the Young Open Cluster NGC 2264, AJ, 114, 2644 crossref(new window)

64.
Sung, H., Bessell, M. S., & Lee, S.-W. 1998, UBV RI and Hα Photometry of the Young Open Cluster NGC 6231, AJ, 115, 734 crossref(new window)

65.
Sung, H., Chun, M.-Y., & Bessell, M. S. 2000, UBV RI and Hα Photometry of the Young Open Cluster NGC 6530, AJ, 120, 333 crossref(new window)

66.
Sung, H., Lim, B., Bessell, M. S., Kim, J. S., Hur, H., Chun, M.-Y., & Park, B.-G. 2013a, Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS). 0. Target Selection and Data Analysis, JKAS, 46, 103

67.
Sung, H., Sana, H., & Bessell, M. S. 2013b, The Initial Mass Function and the Surface Density Profile of NGC 6231, AJ, 145, 37 crossref(new window)

68.
Sung, H., Stauffer, J. R., & Bessell, M. S. 2009, A Spitzer View of the Young Open Cluster NGC 2264, AJ, 138, 1116 crossref(new window)

69.
Turner, B. E. 1971, Anomalous OH Emission from New types of Galactic Objects, Astrophys. Lett., 8, 73

70.
Walborn, N. R. 1971, Some Spectroscopic Characteristics of OB Stars: an Investigation of the Space Distribution of Certain OB Stars and the Reference Frame of the Classification, ApJS, 23, 257 crossref(new window)

71.
Walborn, N. R., & Fitzpatrick, E. L. 1990, Contemporary Optical Spectral Classification of the OB Stars - A Digital Atlas, PASP, 102, 379 crossref(new window)

72.
Wang, Y., Beuther, H., Bik, A., Vasyunina, T., Jiang, Z., Puga, E., Linz, H., Rodón, J. A., Henning, T., & Tamura, M. 2011, Different Evolutionary Stages in the Massive Star-Forming Region S255 Complex, A&A, 527, 32 crossref(new window)

73.
Whittet, D. C. B. 1977, The Dependence of the Extinction Ratio on Galactic Longitude, MNRAS, 180, 29 crossref(new window)

74.
Zinchenko, I., Liu, S.-Y., Su, Y.-N., Kurtz, S., Ojha, D. K., Samal, M. R., & Ghosh, S. K. 2012, A multi-Wavelength High-Resolution Study of the S255 Star-Forming Region: General Structure and Kinematics, 755, 177 crossref(new window)