Advanced SearchSearch Tips
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
  PDF(new window)
We map 6 massive young stellar objects (YSOs) in the CO J=2-1 line and survey 18 massive YSOs, including the six, in the HCO+ J=1−0, SiO J=2−1, H2O 616 − 523 maser, and CH3OH 70 − 61 A+ maser lines. We detect CO bipolar outflows in all the six mapped sources. Four of them are newly discovered (07299−1651, 21306+5540, 22308+5812, 23133+6050), while 05490+2658 is mapped in the CO J=2-1 line for the first time. The detected outflows are much more massive and energetic than outflows from low-mass YSOs with masses >20 M and momenta >300 M km s−1. They have mass outflow rates (3−6)×10−4 M yr−1, which are at least one order of magnitude greater than those observed in low-mass YSOs. We detect HCO+ and SiO line emission in 18 (100%) and 4 (22%) sources, respectively. The HCO+ spectra show high-velocity wings in 11 (61%) sources. We detect H2O maser emission in 13 (72%) sources and 44 GHz CH3OH maser emission in 8 (44%) sources. Of the detected sources, 5 H2O and 6 CH3OH maser sources are new discoveries. 20081+3122 shows high-velocity (>30 km s−1) H2O maser lines. We find good correlations of the bolometric luminosity of the central (proto)star with the mechanical force, mechanical luminosity, and mass outflow rate of molecular outflow in the bolometric luminosity range of 10−1−106 L, and identified 3 intermediate- or high-mass counterparts of Class O objects.
ISM;jets and outflows — ISM;molecules — masers — stars;formation — stars;protostars;
 Cited by
Bachiller, R. 1996, Bipolar Molecular Outflows from Young Stars and Protostars, ARA&A, 34, 111 crossref(new window)

Bae, J.-H., Kim, K.-T., Youn, S.-Y., et al. 2011, A Multi-Epoch, Simultaneous Water and Methanol Maser Survey toward Intermediate-Mass Young Stellar Objects, ApJS, 196, 21 crossref(new window)

Beuther, H., Schilke, P., Menten, K. M., et al. 2002a, High-Mass Protostellar Candidates. II. Density Structure from Dust Continuum and CS Emission, ApJ, 566, 945 crossref(new window)

Beuther, H., Schilke, P., Sridharan, T. K., et al. 2002b, Massive Molecular Outflows, A&A, 383, 892 crossref(new window)

Bontemps, S., Andre, P., Terebey, S., et al. 1996, Evolution of Outflow Activity around Low-Mass Embedded Young Stellar Objects, A&A, 311, 858

Bronfman, L., Nyman, L.-A., & May, J. 1996, A CS (2–1) Survey of IRAS Point Sources with Color Characteristics of Ultra-Compact HII Regions, A&AS, 115, 81

Cabrit, S., & Bertout, C. 1992, CO Line Formation in Bipolar Flows. III - The Energetics of Molecular Flows and Ionized Winds, A&A, 261, 274

Cohen, R. J., Baart, E. E., & Jonas, J. L. 1988, OH Masers Associated wth IRAS Far-Infrared Sources, MNRAS, 231, 205 crossref(new window)

Comoretto, G., Palagi, F., Cesaroni, R., et al. 1990, The Arcetri Atlas of H2O Maser Sources, A&AS, 84, 179

Churchwell, E. 2002, Ultra-Compact HII Regions and Massive Star Formation, ARA&A, 40, 27 crossref(new window)

Churchwell, E., Walmsley, C. M., & Cesaroni, R. 1990, A Survey of Ammonia and Water Vapor Emission from Ultracompact HII Regions, A&AS, 83, 119

Edris, K. A., Fuller, G. A., & Cohen, R. J. 2007, A Survey of OH Masers towards High Mass Protostellar Objects, A&A, 465, 865 crossref(new window)

Fich, M. 1993, A VLA Survey of Optically Visible Galactic H II Regions, ApJS, 86, 475 crossref(new window)

Fontani, F., Cesaroni, R., & Furuya, R. S. 2010, Class I and Class II Methanol Masers in High-Mass Star-Forming Regions, A&A, 517, 56 crossref(new window)

Furuya, R. S., Kitamura, Y., Wootten, H. A., et al. 2001, Water Maser Survey toward Low-Mass Young Stellar Objects in the Northern Sky: Observational Constraints on Maser Excitation Conditions, ApJ, 559, L143 crossref(new window)

Harju, J., Lehtinen, K., Booth, R. S., et al. 1998, A Survey of SiO Emission towards Interstellar Masers. I. SiO Line Characteristics, A&AS, 132, 211 crossref(new window)

Haschick, A. D., & Ho, P. T. P. 1985, Formation of OB Clusters – CO, NH3, and H2O Observations of the Distant H II Region Complex in S128, ApJ, 292, 200 crossref(new window)

Haschick, A. D., Menten, K. M., & Baan, W. A. 1990, Detection of Widespread Strong Methanol Masers at 44 GHz, ApJ, 345, 556 crossref(new window)

Henning, T., Cesaroni, R., Walmsley, M., et al. 1992, Maser Search towards Young Stellar Objects, A&AS, 93, 525

Ho, P. T. P., Haschick, A. D., & Israel, F. P. 1981, OB Star Formation in the S128 Region, ApJ, 243, 526 crossref(new window)

Hunter, T. R., Churchwell, E., Watson, C., et al. 2000, 350 μm Images of Massive Star Formation Regions, AJ, 119, 2711 crossref(new window)

Kang, H., Kim, K.-T., Byun, D.-Y., et al. 2015, Simultaneous Observation of Water and Class I Methanol Masers toward Class II Methanol Maser Sources, ApJS, 221, 6 crossref(new window)

Kim, K.-T., Byun, D.-Y., Je, D.-H., et al. 2011, 100-GHz Band Test Observations of the KVN 21-m Radio Telescopes, JKAS, 44, 8

Kim, K.-T., & Kurtz, S. E. 2006, Occurrence Frequency of CO Outflows in Massive Protostellar Candidates, ApJ, 643, 978 crossref(new window)

Klaassen, P. D., & Wilson, C. D. 2007, Outflow and Infall in a Sample of Massive Star-Forming Regions, ApJ, 663, 1092 crossref(new window)

Klein, R., Posselt, B., Schreyer, K., et al. 2005, A Millimeter Continuum Survey for Massive Protoclusters in the Outer Galaxy, ApJS, 161, 361 crossref(new window)

Koo, B.-C., Park, Y.-S., Hong, S. S., et al. 2003, Performance of the SRAO 6-Meter Radio Telescope, JKAS, 36, 43

Kumar, M. S. N., Tafalla, M., & Bachiller, R. 2004, The Structure of the Onsala 1 Star Forming Region, A&A, 426, 195 crossref(new window)

Kurtz, S., Churchwell, E., & Wood, D. O. S. 1994, Ultracompact H II Regions. 2: New High-Resolution Radio Images, ApJS, 91, 659 crossref(new window)

Kurtz, S., & Hofner, P. 2005, Water Masers Toward Ultracompact H II Regions, AJ, 130, 711 crossref(new window)

Larionov, G. M., Val’tts, I. E., Winnberg, A., et al. 1999, Survey of Bipolar Outflows and Methanol Masers in the C32S (2–1) and CC34S (2–1) Lines in the Northern Sky, A&AS, 139, 257 crossref(new window)

Lebrón, M. E., Rodríguez, L. F., & Lizano, S. 2001, Observations of the Ionized, Neutral, and Molecular Components Associated with an Expanding H II Region, ApJ, 560, 806 crossref(new window)

Lee, S.-S., Byun, D.-Y., Oh, C.-S., et al. 2011, Single-Dish Performance of KVN 21 m Radio Telescopes: Simultaneous Observations at 22 and 43 GHz, PASP, 123, 1398 crossref(new window)

Minier, V., Burton, M. G., Hill, T., et al. 2005, Star-Forming Protoclusters Associated with Methanol Masers, A&A, 429, 945 crossref(new window)

Molinari, S., Brand, J., Cesaroni, R., et al. 1996, A Search for Precursors of Ultracompact HII Regions in a Sample of Luminous IRAS Sources. I. Association with Ammonia Cores, A&A, 308, 573

Nammahachak, S., Asanok, K., Hutawarakorn, K. B., et al. 2006, OH Masers Associated with Bipolar Outflow in ON1, MNRAS, 371, 619 crossref(new window)

Ochsenbein, F., Bauer, P., & Marcout, J. 2000, The VizieR Database of Astronomical Catalogues, A&AS, 143, 23 crossref(new window)

Osterloh, M., Henning, T., & Launhardt, R. 1997, Infrared Images and Millimeter Data from Cold Southern IRAS Sources, ApJS, 110, 71 crossref(new window)

Purcell, C. R., Balasubramanyam, R., Burton, M. G., et al. 2006, A CH3CN and HCO+ Survey towards Southern Methanol Masers Associated with Star Formation, MNRAS, 367, 553 crossref(new window)

Ridge, N. A., & Moore, T. J. T. 2001, A Single Distance Sample of Molecular Outflows from High-Mass Young Stellar Objects, MNRAS, 378, 495

Shepherd, D. S., & Churchwell, E. 1996a, High-Velocity Molecular Gas from High-Mass Star Formation Regions, ApJ, 457, 267 crossref(new window)

Shepherd, D. S., & Churchwell, E. 1996b, Bipolar Molecular Outflows in Massive Star Formation Regions, ApJ, 472, 225 crossref(new window)

Snell, R. L., Dickman, R. L., & Huang, Y.-L. 1990, Molecular Outflows Associated with a Flux-Limited Sample of Bright Far-Infrared Sources, ApJ, 352, 139 crossref(new window)

Sridharan, T. K., Beuther, H., Schilke, P., et al. 2002, High-Mass Protostellar Candidates. I. The Sample and Initial Results, ApJ, 566, 931 crossref(new window)

Szymczak, M., Hrynek, G., & Kus, A. J. 2000, A Survey of the 6.7 GHz Methanol Maser Emission from IRAS Sources. I. Data, A&AS, 143, 269 crossref(new window)

Szymczak, M., Bartkiewicz, A., & Richards, A. M. S. 2007, A Multi-Transition Molecular Line Study of Candidate Massive Young Stellar Objects Associated with Methanol Masers, A&A, 468, 617 crossref(new window)

Walsh, A. J., Burton, M. G., Hyland, A. R., et al. 1998, Studies of Ultracompact HII Regions – II. High-Resolution Radio Continuum and Methanol Maser Survey, MNRAS, 301, 640 crossref(new window)

Walsh, A. J., Bertoldi, F., Burton, M. G., et al. 2001, Mid-Infrared Observations of Methanol Maser Sites and Ultracompact H ii Regions: Signposts of High-Mass Star Formation, MNRAS, 326, 36 crossref(new window)

Wood, D. O. S., & Churchwell, E. 1989, Massive Stars Embedded in Molecular Clouds – Their Population and Distribution in the Galaxy, ApJ, 340, 265 crossref(new window)

Wouterloot, J. G. A., Brand, J., & Fiegle, K. 1993, IRAS Sources beyond the Solar Circle. III - Observations of H2O, OH, CH3OH and CO, A&AS, 98, 589

Wu, Y., Wei, Y., Zhao, M., et al. 2004, A Study of High Velocity Molecular Outflows with an Up-to-Date Sample, A&A, 426, 503 crossref(new window)

Wu, Y., Zhang, Q., Chen, H., et al. 2005, CO J = 2-1 Maps of Bipolar Outflows in Massive Star-Forming Regions, AJ, 129, 330 crossref(new window)

Xu, Y., Shen, Z.-Q., Yang, J., et al. 2006, Molecular Outflows around High-Mass Young Stellar Objects, AJ, 132, 20 crossref(new window)

Zhang, Q., Hunter, T. R., Brand, J., et al. 2001, Search for CO Outflows toward a Sample of 69 High-Mass Protostellar Candidates: Frequency of Occurrence, ApJ, 552, L167 crossref(new window)

Zhang, Q., Hunter, T. R., Brand, J., et al. 2005, Search for CO Outflows toward a Sample of 69 High-Mass Protostellar Candidates. II. Outflow Properties, ApJ, 625, 864 crossref(new window)