Advanced SearchSearch Tips
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
  PDF(new window)
The Toothbrush radio relic associated with the merging cluster 1RXS J060303.3 is presumed to be produced by relativistic electrons accelerated at merger-driven shocks. Since the shock Mach number inferred from the observed radio spectral index, Mradio ≈ 2.8, is larger than that estimated from X-ray observations, MX ≲ 1.5, we consider the re-acceleration model in which a weak shock of Ms ≈ 1.2 - 1.5 sweeps through the intracluster plasma with a preshock population of relativistic electrons. We find the models with a power-law momentum spectrum with the slope, s ≈ 4.6, and the cutoff Lorentz factor, γe,c ≈ 7-8×104 can reproduce reasonably well the observed profiles of radio uxes and integrated radio spectrum of the head portion of the Toothbrush relic. This study confirms the strong connection between the ubiquitous presence of fossil relativistic plasma originated from AGNs and the shock-acceleration model of radio relics in the intracluster medium.
acceleration of particles;cosmic rays;galaxies;clusters;general;shock waves;
 Cited by
Shock Acceleration Model for the Toothbrush Radio Relic, The Astrophysical Journal, 2017, 840, 1, 42  crossref(new windwow)
Akamatsu, H., & Kawahara, H. 2013, Systematic X-Ray Analysis of Radio Relic Clusters with Suzaku, PASJ, 65, 16

Brüggen, M., Bykov, A., Ryu, D., & Röttgering, H. 2012, Magnetic Fields, Relativistic Particles, and Shock Waves in Cluster Outskirts, Space Sci. Rev., 166, 187 crossref(new window)

Brunetti, G., & Jones, T. W. 2014, Cosmic Rays in Galaxy Clusters and Their Nonthermal Emission, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D, 23, 30007 crossref(new window)

Clarke, T. E., Randall S. W., Sarazin, C. L., et al. 2013, Chandra View of the Ultra-Steep Spectrum Radio Source in A2443: Merger Shock-Induced Compression of Fossil Radio Plasma?, ApJ, 772, 84 crossref(new window)

de Gasperin, F., Ogrean, G. A., van Weeren, R. J., et al. 2015, Abell 1033: Birth of a Radio Phoenix, MNRAS, 448, 2197 crossref(new window)

Drury, L. O’C. 1983, An Introduction to the Theory of Diffusive Shock Acceleration of Energetic Particles in Tenuous Plasmas, Rept. Prog. Phys., 46, 973 crossref(new window)

Ensslin, T. A. 1999, Radio Ghosts, in Ringberg Workshop on Diffuse Thermal and Relativistic Plasma in Galaxy Clusters, ed. P. S. H. Böhringer, L. Feretti, MPE Report 271, 275

Ensslin, T. A., Biermann, P. L., Kleing, U., & Kohle, S. 1998, Cluster Radio Relics as a Tracer of Shock Waves of the Large-Scale Structure Formation, A&A, 332, 395

Ensslin, T. A., & Brüggen, M. 2002, On the Formation of Cluster Radio Relics, MNRAS, 331, 1011 crossref(new window)

Ensslin, T. A., & Gopal-Krishna. 2001, Reviving Fossil Radio Plasma in Clusters of Galaxies by Adiabatic Compression in Environmental Shock Waves, A&A, 366, 26 crossref(new window)

Feretti, L., Giovannini, G., Govoni, F., & Murgia, M. 2012, Clusters of Galaxies: Observational Properties of the Diffuse Radio Emission, A&A Rev., 20, 54 crossref(new window)

Hong, E. W., Ryu, D., Kang, H., & Cen, R. 2014, Shock Waves and Cosmic Ray Acceleration in the Outskirts of Galaxy Clusters, ApJ, 785, 133 crossref(new window)

Itahana, M., Takizawa, M., Akamatsu, H., et al. 2015, Suzaku Observations of the Galaxy Cluster 1RXS J0603.3+4214: Implications of Particle Acceleration Processes in the "Toothbrush" Radio Relic, PASJ, 67, 113

Kang, H. 2011, Energy Spectrum of Nonthermal Electrons Accelerated at a Plane Shock, JKAS, 44, 49

Kang, H. 2015a, Nonthermal Radiation from Relativistic Electrons Accelerated at Spherically Expanding Shocks, JKAS, 48, 9

Kang, H. 2015b, Radio Emission from Weak Spherical Shocks in the Outskirts of Galaxy Clusters, JKAS, 48, 155

Kang, H., & Jones, T. W. 2006, Numerical Studies of Diffusive Shock Acceleration at Spherical Shocks, Astropart. Phys., 25, 246 crossref(new window)

Kang, H., & Ryu, D. 2011, Re-Acceleration of Non-Thermal Particles at Weak Cosmological Shock Waves, ApJ, 764, 95 crossref(new window)

Kang, H., & Ryu, D. 2015, Curved Radio Spectra of Weak Cluster Shocks, ApJ, 809, 186 crossref(new window)

Kang, H., & Ryu, D. 2016, Re-Acceleration Model for Radio Relics with Spectral Curvature, ApJ, 823, 13 crossref(new window)

Kang, H., Ryu, D., & Jones, T. W. 2012, Diffusive Shock Acceleration Simulations of Radio Relics, ApJ, 756, 97 crossref(new window)

Kang, H., Vahe, P., Ryu, D., & Jones, T. W. 2014, Injection of κ-like Suprathermal Particles into Diffusive Shock Acceleration, ApJ, 788, 141 crossref(new window)

Kempner, J. C., Blanton, E. L., Clarke, T. E., et al. 2004, Conference Note: A Taxonomy of Extended Radio Sources in Clusters of Galaxies, in The Riddle of Cooling Flows in Galaxies and Clusters of galaxies, ed. T. Reiprich, J. Kempner, & N. Soker, 335

Ogrean, G. A., Brüggen, M., van Weeren, R., Röttgering, H., Croston, J. H., & Hoeft, M. 2013, Challenges to Our Understanding of Radio Relics: X-Ray Observations of the Toothbrush Cluster, MNRAS, 433, 812 crossref(new window)

Pinzke, A., Oh, S. P., & Pfrommer, C. 2013, Giant Radio Relics in Galaxy Clusters: Re-Acceleration of Fossil Relativistic Electrons?, MNRAS, 435, 1061 crossref(new window)

Russell, H. R., van Weeren, R. J., Edge, A. C., et al. 2011 A Merger Mystery: No Extended Radio Emission in the Merging Cluster Abell 2146, MNRAS, 417, L1 crossref(new window)

Ryu, D., Kang, H., Hallman, E., & Jones, T. W. 2003, Cosmological Shock Waves and Their Role in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, ApJ, 593, 599 crossref(new window)

Sarazin, C. L. 1988, X-Ray Emission from Clusters of Galaxies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

Shimwell, T. W., Markevitch, M., Brown, S., Feretti, L, et al., 2015, Another Shock for the Bullet Cluster, and the Source of Seed Electrons for Radio Relics, MNRAS, 449, 1486 crossref(new window)

Skilling, J. 1975, Cosmic Ray Streaming. I - Effect of Alfvén Waves on Particles, MNRAS, 172, 557 crossref(new window)

Skillman, S. W., Hallman, E. J., O’Shea, W., Burns, J. O., Smith, B. D., & Turk, M. J. 2011, Galaxy Cluster Radio Relics in Adaptive Mesh Refinement Cosmological Simulations: Relic Properties and Scaling Relationships, ApJ, 735, 96 crossref(new window)

Slee, O. B., Roy, A. L., Murgia, M., Andernach, H., & Ehle, M. 2001, Four Extreme Relic Radio Sources in Clusters of Galaxies, AJ, 122, 1172 crossref(new window)

Stroe, A., Shimwell, T. W., Rumsey, et al. 2016, The Widest Frequency Radio Relic Spectra: Observations from 150 MHz to 30 GHz, MNRAS, 455, 2402 crossref(new window)

Trasatti, M., Akamatsu, H., Lovisari, L., Klein, U., Bonafede, A., Brggen, M., Dallacasa, D., & Clarke, T. 2015, The Radio Relic in Abell 2256: Overall Spectrum and Implications for Electron Acceleration, A&A, 575, A45 crossref(new window)

van Weeren, R., Brunetti, G., Brüggen, M., et al. 2016, LOFAR, VLA, and CHANDRA Observations of the Toothbrush Galaxy Cluster, ApJ, 818, 204 crossref(new window)

van Weeren, R., Röttgering, H. J. A., Brüggen, M., & Hoeft, M. 2010, Particle Acceleration on Megaparsec Scales in a Merging Galaxy Cluster, Science, 330, 347 crossref(new window)

van Weeren, R. J., Röttgering, H. J. A., & Brüggen, M. 2011b, Diffuse Steep-Spectrum Sources from the 74 MHz VLSS Survey, A&A, 527, A114 crossref(new window)

van Weeren, R., Röttgering, H. J. A., Intema, H. T., Rudnick, L., Brüggen, M., Hoeft, M., & Oonk, J. B. R. 2012, The "Toothbrush-Relic": Evidence for a Coherent Linear 2-Mpc Scale Shock Wave in a Massive Merging Galaxy Cluster?, A&A, 546, 124 crossref(new window)

Vazza, F., Brunetti, G., & Gheller, C. 2009, Shock Waves in Eulerian Cosmological Simulations: Main Properties and Acceleration of Cosmic Rays, MNRAS, 395, 1333 crossref(new window)