Re-exploring teaching and learning of probability and statistics using Excel

- Journal title : Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
- Volume 21, Issue 7, 2016, pp.85-92
- Publisher : Korean Society of Computer Information
- DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2016.21.7.085

Title & Authors

Re-exploring teaching and learning of probability and statistics using Excel

Lee, Seung-Bum; Park, Jungeun; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Dong-Joong;

Lee, Seung-Bum; Park, Jungeun; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Dong-Joong;

Abstract

The law of large numbers, central limit theorem, and connection among binomial distribution, normal distribution, and statistical estimation require dynamics of continuous visualization for students` better understanding of the concepts. During this visualization process, the differences and similarities between statistical probability and mathematical probability that students should observe need to be provided with the intermediate steps in the converging process. We propose a visualization method that can integrate intermediate processes and results through Excel. In this process, students` experiences with dynamic visualization help them to perceive that the results are continuously changed and extracted from multiple situations. Considering modeling as a key process, we developed a classroom exercise using Excel to estimate the population mean and standard deviation by using a sample mean computed from a collection of data out of the population through sampling.

Keywords

binomial distribution;Excel;normal distribution;the central limit theorem;the law of large numbers;

Language

English

References

1.

B. Shin, and K. Lee, "A Study on the Statistical Probability Instruction through Computer Simulation," Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 139-156. May 2006.

2.

L. S. Vygotsky, "Thought and language," Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.

3.

J. Kilpatrick, J. Swafford, and B. Findell, "Adding It Up: Helping Children Learn Mathematics," Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2001.

4.

K. Chang, "Visual Representations and Visual Thinking in Mathematics Education," Journal of the Korea Society of Educational Studies in Mathematics, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 53-63, December 1992.

5.

H. Lew, and J. Lee, "Visualization in Mathematics Education and LoGo," Journal of the Korea Society of Educational Studies in Mathematics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 75-85, July 1993.

6.

H. Seo, S. Kang, and H. Lim, "The Application of Excel to Probability and Statistics Teaching," Communications of Mathematical Education, vol. 9, pp. 299-316, July 1999.

7.

R. C. Caulfield, P. E. Smith, and K. McCormick, "The spreadsheet: A vehicle for connecting proportional reasoning to the real world in a middle school classroom," In W. Masalski, & P. C. Elliott(Eds.), Technology-supported mathematics learning environments, Reston, VA: NCTM, pp. 165-173, 2005.

8.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. "Principles and standards for school mathematics," Reston, VA: NCTM, 2000.

9.

D. Lee, "Application of excel on statistics education," Hong-ik University of the graduate school of education master's thesis, 2005.

10.

M. Lee, "A study on teaching high school statistics with excel," Dankook University of the graduate school of education master's thesis, 2010.

11.

J. Lee, "Studying on education of probability and statistics by using excel," Yonsei University of the graduate school of education master's thesis, 2007.

12.

A. Graham, and M. Thomas, "Representational versatility in learning statistics," International Journal for Technology in Mathematics Education, vol. 12, pp. 3-14, July 2005.

13.

Y. Kim, "A study on teaching and learning probability and statistics education using excel," Ajou University of the graduate school of education master's thesis, 2005.

14.

M. Lee, "Studying on education of probability and statistics by using microsoft excel," Kangwon National University of the graduate school of education master's thesis, 2008.

15.

D. Nolan, and D. Temple Lang, "Dynamic interactive documents for teaching statistical practice," International Statistical Review, vol. 75, pp. 295-321, December 2007.

16.

C. Schwartz, "Computer-aided statistical instruction: multimediocre techno-trash?," International Statistical Review, vol. 75, pp. 348-364, December 2007.

17.

S. Lewis, "Laptops in the middle school mathematics classroom," In W. Masalski, & P. C. Elliott(Eds.), Technology-supported mathematics learning environment, Reston, VA: NCTM, pp. 263-275, 2005.

18.

C. S. Parke, "Using spreadsheet software to explore measures of central tendency and variability," In W. Masalski, & P. C. Elliott(Eds.), Technology-supported mathematics learning environments, Reston, VA: NCTM, pp. 175-188, 2005.

19.

J. B. Plymouth, "Developing mathematical modelling skills: The role of CAS," The International Journal on Mathematics Education, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 212-220, 2002.

20.

J. Woo, K. Park, K. Park, K. Lee, N. Kim, J. Yim, J. Lee, and M. Kim, "Integral Calculus and Statistics," Seoul: Dongapublishing, 2010.

21.

W. Kim, S. Moon, and J. Byun, "Mathematics teachers' knowledge and belief on the high school probability and statistics," The Mathematical Education, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 381-406, November 2006.

22.

P. H. Dunham, and T. P. Dick, "Research on graphing calculators," The Mathematics Teacher, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 440-445, 1994.

23.

M. K. Heid, and M. T. Edwards, "Computer algebra systems: Revolution or retrofit for today's mathematics classrooms?" Theory Into Practice, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 128-136, April 2010.

24.

Z. Dienes, "Building up mathematics," London, UK: Hutchinson Educational Ltd, 1960.

25.

L. Ball, and K. Stacey, "Teaching Strategies for Developing Judicious Technology Use," In W. Masalski, & P. C. Elliott(Eds.), Technology-supported mathematics learning environments, Reston, VA: NCTM, pp. 3-15, 2005.