Brekhman, I. I. and Dardymov, I. V. (1969) New substances of plant origin which increase non-specific resistance. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. 9, 419-430.
Cha, J. Y., Jun B. S., and Cho, Y. S. (2003) Effect of Korean red ginseng powder on the lipid concentrations and tissue lipid peroxidation in the rats fed high fat diet. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 32, 124-130.
Cha, J. Y., Kim, H. J., Jun, B. S., and Cho, Y. S. (2000) Effect of water extract of leaves from Morus alba and Cudrania tricuspidata on the lipid concentration of serum and liver in rats. Agric. Chem. Biotehnol. 43, 303-308.
Cho, S. Y., Park, J. Y., and Jang, J. Y. (2000) Effect of dandelion leaf extracts on lipid metabolism in rats fed high cholesterol diet. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 29, 675-682.
Choi, S. H. and Chin, K. B. (2002) Development of low-fat comminuted sausage manufactured with various fat replacers similar textural characteristics to those with regularfat counterpart. Korean J. Food. Sci. Thechnol. 34, 577-582.
Chung, Y. H., Hwng, Y. S., Joo, C. N., and Paik, Y. K. (1992) Effects of colestipol and ginseng saponin on the cholesterol metabolism in mice. J. Kor. Lipid. 2, 16-23.
Do, K. M., Park, Y. B., Bok, S. H., Lee, M. K., Jeong, T. S., and Choi, M. S. (2001) Alteration of lipid metabolism by ginseng supplements with different levels of vitamin E in high cholesterol-fed rats. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 6, 66-72.
Folch, J., Lees, M., and Sloan-Stanley, G. H. (1957) A simple method for the isolstion and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Bio. Chem. 226, 497-507.
Friedewald, W. T., Levy, R. I., and Fredrickson, D.S. (1972) Estimation of concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma without use of the ultracentrifuge. Clin. Chem. 18, 449-502.
Gordon, T., Casfelli, W. P., Hjortland, M. C., Kennel, W. B., and Dawher, T. R. (1997) High density lipoprotein as a protective factor against coronary heart diseases, the Framingham study. Am. J. Med. 62, 707-714.
Hamsten, A. (1988). Aplipoproteins dyslipoprotenaemia and premature coronary heart disease. Acta. Med. Scand. 223, 389-394.
Havel, R. J. (1961) Conversion of plasma free fatty acids into triglycerides of plasma lipoprotein fractions in man. Metabolism 10, 1031-1034.
Inkeles, S. and Eisenberg D. (1981) Hyperlipidemia and coronary antherosclerosis. Medicine 60, 110-123.
Inoue, M., Wu, C. Z., Dou, D. G., Chen, Y. J., and Ogihara, Y. (1999) Lipoprotein lipase activation by red ginseng saponins in hyperlipidemia model animals. Phytomedicine 6, 257-265.
Joo, C. N., Choi, J. Y., and Lee, Y. W. (1987) Biosythesis of low density lipoprotein receptor: Stimulation of liver cholesterol metabolism by ginsenosides. Korean Biochem. J. 20, 368-372.
Joung, I. S. and Cho, Y. D. (1985) Effect of ginseng saponin fraction on absorption of cholesterol and serum lipid components. Korean J. Ginseng Sci. 9, 222-239.
Kang, B. H. and Joo, C. N. (1986) Biochemical studies on ginseng saponin (XXVI). The effect of ginseng saonin fraction on low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake by rat and rabbit livers. Korean Biochem. J. 19, 168-172.
Kim, B. K., Shin, G. K., Jeon, B. S. Bae, D. W., and Cha, J. Y. (2001) Cholesterol-lowering effect of mushroom powder in hyperlipidemic rats. J. Korean. Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 30, 510-515.
Kurata, M., Narikawa, T., Waki, M., Koh, H., Maruyama, T., and Nambu, S. (1990) Relationships between serum cholesterol and obesity: A field study on nutritional background of hypercholesterolemia. Diabetes Res. Cli. Pract. 10, 239-245.
Lee, H. K. (1996) Nutritional problems of Koreans: pattern of disease incidence and nutrition in Korea. Korean J. Nutr. 29, 381-383.
Lee, I. S., Lee, S., and Lee, I. Z. (2003) Effects of tissue cultured ginseng on blood glucose and lipids in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats. Korean J. Food Sci. Thechol. 35, 280-258.
Lee, J. W., Lee, S. K., and Do, J. H. (2002) Comparison of the content of saponin and mineral component in Korean red ginseng and other ginseng. Ginseng Res. 26, 196-201.
Lin, S. G., Zheng, X. L., Chen, Q. Y., and Sun, J. J. (1993) Effect of Panax notoginseng saponins on increased proliferation of cultured aortic smooth muscle cells stimulated by hypercholesterolemic serum. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao 14, 314-6.
Moir, A. M., Park, B. S., and Zammit, V. A. (1995) Quantification in vivo of the effects of different types of dietary fat on the loci of control involved in hepatic triacylglycerol secretion. Biochem. J. 308, 537-547.
Moon, K. S. (1985) Components and utilization of medical plants. Ilwonseogak Co., Seoul, Korea pp. 500 (in Korean).
Park, K. H., Shin, H. J., Song, Y. B., Hyun, H. C., Cho, H. Y., Ham, H. S., Yoo, Y. B., Ko, Y. C., Jun, W. T., and Park, H. J. (2002) Possible role of ginsenoside Rb1 on regulation of rat liver triglycerides. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 25, 457-60.
Park, P. W. and Goins, R. E. (1999) In situ preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for analysis of fatty acid composition in foods. J. Food Sci. 59, 1262-1266.
Pearson, A. M., Asghjar, A., Gray, J. I., and Booren, A. M. (1987) Impact of fat reduction on palatability and consumer acceptance of processed meat. Preced 46th Ann. Recip. Meat Conf. 40, 105-114.
SAS (1997) SAS/STAT Software for PC, SAS Institute INC, Cary, NC, USA.
Schaefer, E. J. (1995) Lipoproteins, nutrition, aging and atherosclerosis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61, 726.
Shephered, J., Packard, C. J., Grundy, S. M., Yeshumin, D., Gotto, A. M., and Taunton, O. D. (1980) Effect of saturated and unsaturated fat diets in the chemical composition and metabolism of low density lipoprotein in man. J. Lipid Res. 21, 91-9.
Simopoulos, A. P. (1988) $\omega$
-3 fatty acids in growth and development part II. The role of $\omega-3$
fatty acids in health and disease: Dietary implication. Nutrition today 23, 10-19.
Stavro, P. M., Woo, M., Heim, T. F., Leiter, L. A., and Vuksan, V. (2005) North American ginseng exerts a neutral effect on blood pressure in individuals with hypertension. Hypertension 46, 406-411.
Wen, Y., Pei, Y., Chen, Y., Wang, Z., Ma, Z., Wang, M., and Li, W. (1996) Effects of ginsenosides from stems and leaves on hyperlipemia induced by prednisone acetate in rabbits. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 21, 430-431, 448.
Yamamoto, M., Uemura, Nakama, S., Uemiya, M., and Kumagai, A. (1983) Serum HDL-cholesterol increasing and fatty liver improving actions of Panax ginseng in high cholesterol diet-fed rats with clinical effect on hyperlipidemia in man. Am. J. Chin. Med. 11, 96-101.
Yang, Y., Wu, T., He, K., and Fu, Z. G. (1999) Effect of aerobic exercise and ginsenosides on lipid metabolism in dietinduced hyperlipidemia mice. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao 20, 563-565.
Yoon, S. H. and Joo, C. N. (1993) Study on the preventive effect of ginsenosides against hypercholesterolemia and its mechanism. Korean J. Ginseng Sci. 17, 1-12.
Zhang, Y. G., Zhang, H. G., Zhang, G. Y., Fan, J. S., Li, X. H., Liu, Y. H., Li, S. H., Lian, X. M., and Tang, Z. (2008) Panax notoginseng saponins attenuate atherosclerosis in rats by regulating the blood lipid profile and an anti-inflammatory action. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 35, 1238-1244.