JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Reheating Conditions and Sodium Chloride/Phosphate Levels on Color Characteristics of Precooked Pork Patties
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Reheating Conditions and Sodium Chloride/Phosphate Levels on Color Characteristics of Precooked Pork Patties
Choi, Ji-Hun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Han, Doo-Jeong; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Kim, Si-Young; Lee, Ju-Woon; Jeong, Jong-Youn; Kim, Cheon-Jei;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reheating methods on the color characteristics of precooked pork patties with various NaCl and phosphate levels. NaCl/phosphate levels for each formulation were as follows; N1 (1% NaCl), N1+P (1% NaCl+0.3% phosphate), N2 (2% NaCl), and N2+P (2% NaCl+0.3% phosphate). The reheating methods used were by electric grill and microwave oven. The surface color of the patties reheated by microwave showed more brown and less-intense red, and the phosphate-treated patties reheated by microwave were more reddish and less brownish. With increased amounts of added NaCl and phosphate, the internal color of patties was more reddish, and the phosphate-treated patties reheated by microwave had more brown than those reheated by electric grill. Among all of the treatments, there were no significant differences in surface color, internal color, and overall appearance. Thus, the color changes in reheated patties were influenced by reheating methods and phosphate.
 Keywords
reheating method;NaCl;phosphate;meat color;ground pork patty;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Barbut, S. and Mittal, G. S. (1990) Effect of heating rate on meat batter stability, texture and gelation. J. Food Sci. 55, 334-337. crossref(new window)

2.
Berry, B. W. and Leddy, K. F. (1984) Effects of fat level and cooking method on sensory and textural properties of ground beef patties. J. Food Sci. 49, 870-875. crossref(new window)

3.
Brewer, M. S. and Novakofski, J. (1999) Cooking rate, pH and final endpoint temperature effects on colour and cook loss of a lean ground beef model system. Meat Sci. 52, 443-451. crossref(new window)

4.
Brican, C. and Barringer, S. A. (2002) Determination of protein denaturation of muscle foods using the dielectric properties. J. Food Sci. 67, 202-205. crossref(new window)

5.
Brown, W. D. and Mebine, L. B. (1969) Autoxidation of oxymyoglobins. J. Biol. Chem. 244, 6696-6701.

6.
Choi, J. H., Jeong, J. Y., Choi, Y. S., Lee, E. S., and Kim, C. J. (2008a) The relationship between fat level and quality properties of ground pork patties cooked by microwave energy. Korean J. Food Sci. Ani. Resour. 28, 295-300. crossref(new window)

7.
Choi, J. H., Jeong, J. Y., Kim, H. Y., An, K. I., and Kim, C. J. (2008b) The effects of electric grill and microwave oven reheating methods on the quality characteristics of precooked ground pork patties with different NaCl and phosphate levels. Korean J. Food Sci. Ani. Resour. 28, 535-542.

8.
Chung, M. S. and Chung, S. S. (1993) Quality changes of ground beef patties cooked by conventional and microwave energy during refrigerated storage. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 2, 80-83.

9.
Cremer, M. L. and Hartley, S. K. (1988) Sensory quality of turkey rolls roasted at two temperatures and reheated with varying sauces in three types of institutional ovens. J. Food Sci. 53, 1605-1609. crossref(new window)

10.
El-Shimi, N. H. (1992) Influence of microwave and conventional cooking and reheating on sensory and chemical characteristics of roast beef. Food Chem. 45, 11-14. crossref(new window)

11.
Froning, G. W. (1966) Effect of various additives on the binding properties of chicken meat. Poultry Sci. 45, 185-188. crossref(new window)

12.
Hague, M. E., Warren, K. E., Hunt, M. C., Kropt, D. H., Kastner, C. L., Stroda, S. L., and Johnson, D. E. (1994) Endpoint temperature, internal cooked color, and expressible juice color relationships in ground beef patties. J. Food Sci. 59, 465-470. crossref(new window)

13.
Hood, D. E. (1980) Factors affecting the rate of metmyoglobin accumulation in pre-packaged beef. Meat Sci. 4, 247-265. crossref(new window)

14.
Hunt, M. C., Sorheim, O., and Slinde, E. (1999) Color and heat denaturation of myoglobin forms in ground beef. J. Food Sci. 64, 847-851. crossref(new window)

15.
Hunter, R. S. and Harold, R. W. (1987) The measurement of appearance. 2nd ed, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY, pp. 123-125.

16.
Jeong, J. Y., Lee, E. S., Choi, J. H., Lee, J. Y., Kim, J. M., Min, S. G., Chae, Y. C., and Kim, C. J. (2007) Variability in temperature distribution and cooking properties of ground pork patties containing different fat level and with/without salt cooked by microwave energy. Meat Sci. 75, 415-422. crossref(new window)

17.
Jeong, J. Y., Lee, E. S., Paik, H-. D., Choi, J. H., and Kim, C. J. (2004) Microwave cooking properties of ground pork patties as affected by various fat levels. J. Food Sci. 69, 708-712.

18.
Keeton, J. T. (1983) Effect of fat and NaCl/phosphate levels on the chemical and sensory properties of pork patties. J. Food Sci. 48, 878-881, 885. crossref(new window)

19.
King, N. J. and Whyte, R. (2006) Does it look cooked? A review of factors that influence cooked meat color. J. Food Sci. 71, R31-R40. crossref(new window)

20.
Kirchner, J. M., Beasley, L. C., Harris, K. B., and Savell, J. W. (2000) Evaluating the cooking and chemical characteristics of low-fat ground beef patties. J. Food Comp. Anal. 13, 253-264. crossref(new window)

21.
Korschgen, B. M. and Baldwin, R. E. (1978) Moist-heat microwave and conventional cooking of round roasts of beef. J. Microwave Power E.E. 13, 257-262.

22.
Krzywicki, K. (1979) Assessment of relative content of myoglobin, oxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin at the surface of beef. Meat Sci. 3, 1-10. crossref(new window)

23.
Liu, M. N. and Berry, B. W. (1996) Variability in color, cooking times, and internal temperature of beef patties under controlled cooking conditions. J. Food Protect. 59, 969-975.

24.
Lien, R., Hunt, M. C., Anderson, S., Kropf, D. H., Loughin, T. M., Dikeman, M. E., and Velazco, J. (2002) Effects of endpoint temperature on the internal color of pork patties of different myoglobin form, initial cooking state, and quality J. Food Sci. 67, 1011-1015. crossref(new window)

25.
Mohsenin, N. N. (1980) Thermal properties of foods and agricultural materials. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, NY, pp. 83- 118.

26.
Neer, K. L. and Mandigo, R. W. (1977) Effects of salt, sodium tripolyphosphate and frozen storage time on properties of a flaked, cured pork product. J. Food Sci. 42, 738-742. crossref(new window)

27.
Offer, G. and Trinick, J. (1983) On the mechanism of water holding in meat: the swelling and shrinking in myofibrils. Meat Sci. 8, 245-281. crossref(new window)

28.
Rhee, K. S., Terrell, R. N., Quintanilla, M., and Vanderzant, C. (1983) Effect of addition of cloride salts on rancidity of ground pork inoculated with a moraxella or a Lactobacillus species. J. Food Sci. 48, 302-303. crossref(new window)

29.
Ryan, S. M., Seyfert, M., Hunt, M. C., and Mancini, R. A. (2006) Influence of cooking rate, endpoint temperature, post-cook hold time, and myoglobin redox state on internal color development of cooked ground beef patties. J. Food Sci. 71, C216-C221. crossref(new window)

30.
Ryyanen, S. (1995) The electromagnetic properties of food materials: a review of the basic principles. J. Food Eng. 26, 409-429. crossref(new window)

31.
Ryyanen, S. and Ohlsson, T. (1996) Microwave heating uniformity of ready meals as affected by placement, composition, and geometry. J. Food Sci. 61, 620-624. crossref(new window)

32.
Ryyanen, S., Risman, P. O., and Ohlsson, T. (2004) Hamburger composition and microwave heating uniformity. J. Food Sci. 69, M187-M196.

33.
SAS. (1999) SAS User's Guide. Cary, NC, USA: Statistical Analysis Systems Institute.

34.
Serrano, A., Liblelotto, J., Cofrades, S., Sanchez-Muniz, F. J., and Jimenez-Colmenero, F. (2007) Composition and physicochemical characteristics of restructured beef steaks containing walnuts as affected by cooking method. Meat Sci. 77, 304-313. crossref(new window)

35.
Sherwin, C. P. and Labuza, T. P. (2003) Role of moisture in maillard browning reaction rate in intermediate moisture foods: Comparing solvent phase and matrix properties. J. Food Sci. 68, 588-594. crossref(new window)

36.
Shiffman, R. F. (1986) Food product development for microwave processing. Food Technol. 40, 94-98.

37.
Trout, G. R. (1989) Variation in myoglobin denaturation and colour of cooked beef, pork, and turkey meat as influenced by pH, sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate, and cooking temperature. J. Food Sci. 54, 536-540, 544. crossref(new window)

38.
Trout, G. R. and Dale, S. (1990) Prevention of warmed-over flavor in cooked beef: effect of phosphate type, phosphate concentration, a lemon juice/phosphate blend, and beef extract. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38, 665-669. crossref(new window)

39.
Vollmar, E. K. and Melton, C. C. (1981) Selected quality factors and sensory attributes of cured ham as influenced by different phosphate blends. J. Food Sci. 46,317-320, 327. crossref(new window)

40.
Wallace, W. J., Houtchens, R. A., Maxwell, J. C., and Caughey, W. S. (1982) Mechanism of autoxidation for hemoglobins and myoglobins. promotion of superoxide production by protons and anions. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 4966-4977

41.
Warren, K. E., Hunt, M. C., and Kropf, D. H. (1996) Myoglobin oxidative state affects internal cooked color development in ground beef patties. J. Food Sci. 61, 513-515, 519. crossref(new window)

42.
Warris, P. D. (1979) The extraction of haem pigments form fresh meat. J. Food Technol. 14, 75-80.

43.
Wierbicki, E., Howker, J. J., and Shults, G. W. (1976) Effect of salt, phosphates and other curing ingredients on shrinkage of lean pork meat and the quality of smoked processed ham. J. Food Sci. 41, 1116-1121. crossref(new window)

44.
Zimmermann, W. J. (1984) Microwave recooking of pork roasts to attain $76.7{^{\circ}C}$ throughout. J. Food Sci. 49, 970-971, 974. crossref(new window)