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Effects of Anabolic Steroids of Pork on Proliferation and Differentiation of Myogenic Satellite Cell
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 Title & Authors
Effects of Anabolic Steroids of Pork on Proliferation and Differentiation of Myogenic Satellite Cell
Lee, Dong-Mok; Lee, Ki-Ho; Cheon, Yong-Pil; Chun, Tae-Hoon; Choi, In-Ho;
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Sex steroids are known to be involved in skeletal muscle development (anabolic effect) and are frequently used in medicines. It has been known that pork contains a variety of steroids that are mainly synthesized in the gonads (testis and ovary). Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of anabolic steroids of pork on the proliferation and differentiation of myogenic satellite cells (MSC). Three different methods (M1, M2, and M3) were developed for the isolation and purification of steroids from porcine tissues. Among three extraction methods that we developed, M3 was the best method with respect to the quantities of steroids and the induction of MSC proliferation. Hormonal analysis showed that the steroid hormone levels were the highest in muscle and fat of intact male than those of castrated males and females. In addition, the highest serum levels of nandrolone and testosterone were detected in intact males, whereas estrone and -estradiol levels were similar in the entire experimental serum samples. Expression of androgen receptor (AR), myoD, desmin, and myogenin in bovine muscle cells were significantly up-regulated by the treatment of steroid extracts. The highest increas of myogenin and AR mRNA abundance were observed in the MSCs treated with M3 extract (p<0.001). Altogether, the present research showed the positive effect of steroids on MSC proliferation and differentiation in vitro. These results would certainly imply a beneficial effect of pork consumption on human muscle development.
pig;anabolic steroid;myogenic satellite cell;proliferation;pork;testis;
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