Beef qualities which can be properly predicted by time-temperature integrator (TTI), a chromatic indicator, were selected in terms of its similarity of temperature dependence between beef qualities and TTI, denoted by Arrhenius activation energy (
). The high similarity is required to afford accurate prediction. A devised enzymatic TTI based on laccase (an oxidase), which catalyses the oxidation on 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) producing color development, was applied. The factors of beef quality, such as volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), pH, color (CIE
), Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), Pseudomonas spp. count, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count were considered for the selection.
(55.48 kJ/mol) of the TTI was found to be similar to those of the beef qualities (all referred) in the order of LAB count (53.54 kJ/mol), CIE
value (61.86 kJ/mol), pH (65.51 kJ/mol), Pseudomonas spp. Count (44.54 kJ/mol), VBN (67.98 kJ/mol), WBSF (40.67 kJ/mol), and CIE
value (33.72 kJ/mol). The beef qualities with more similar
to that of the TTI showed less difference between real and TTI predicted levels. In conclusion, it was found out that when applying TTI to food packages, their
similarity should be checked to assure accurate estimation of food quality levels from TTI response.