Adams, T., Daley, C., Adam, B., and Sakurai, H. (1996) Testes function and feedlot performance of bulls actively immunized against gonadotropin-releasing hormone : Effect of age at immunization. J. Anim. Sci. 74, 950-954.
AOAC (2006) Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, D.C., 210-219.
Boccard, R. L., Naude, R. T., Crouse, D. E., Shim, M. C., Venter, H. J., and Rossow, F. I. (1979) The influence of age, sex and breed of cattle on their muscle characteristics. Meat Sci. 3, 261-265.
Bowling, R. A., Smith, G. C., Carpenter, Z. L., Dutson, T. R., and Oliver, W. M. (1997) Comparison of forage-finished and grain-finished beef carcasses. J. Anim. Sci. 45, 209-215.
Bozzolo, H., Bouiller, O. M., Boisseson, E., De Chasson, M., and Grasset, D. (1990) Effect of performance on characteristics of adi-pose tissue of lambs weaned early and given a concentrate high in energy. Annales de Zootechnie. 39, 77- 94.
Bruns, K. W., Pritchard, R. H., and Boggs, D. L. (2004) The relationships among body weight, body composition, and intramuscular fat content in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 82, 1315- 1322.
Cho, S. H., Park, B. Y., Kim, J. H., Hwang, I. H., Kim, J. H., and Lee, J. M. (2005) Fatty acid profiles and sensory properties of Longissirnus dorsi, Triceps brachii, and semimembanosus musclls from Korean Hanwoo and Australian Angus beef. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18, 1786-1793.
CIE (1986) Colorimetry. 2nd ed., Commision Internationale de Leclairage I'Eclairage, Publication CIE No. 15.2. Vienna.
Cranwell, C. D., Unruh, J. A., Brethour, J. R., and Simms, D. D. (1996) Influence of steroid on plants and concentrate feeding on carcass and longissimus muscle sensory and collagen characteristics of cull beef cows. J. Anim. Sci. 74, 1777-1783.
Davis, G. W., Cole, A. B., Backus, W. R. Jr., and Melton, S. L. (1981) Effect of electrical stimulation o carcass quality and meat palatability of beef from forage and grain-finished steers. J. Anim. Sci. 53, 651-657.
Field, R. A. (1971) Effect of castration on meat quality and quantity. J. Anim. Sci. 32, 849-858.
Folch, J., Lees, M., and Stanley, G. H. S. (1957) J. Biol. Chem. 226, 497-500.
Gotoh, T., Albrecht, E., Teuscher, F., Kawabata, K., Sakahita, K., Iwamoto, H., and Wegner, J. (2009) Differences in muscle and fat accretion in Japanese Black and European cattle. Meat Sci. 82, 300-308.
Honikel, K. O. (1998) Reference methods for the assessment of physical characteristics of meat. Meat Sci. 49, 447-457.
Heurta-Leidenz, N. O., Cross, H. R., Svell, J. W., Lunt, D. K., Baker, J. F., and Smith, S. B. (1996) Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue from male calves at different stages of growth. J. Anim. Sci. 74, 1256-1264.
Kang, S. W., Ki, K. S., Oh, Y. K., Kim, K. H., and Choi, C. W. (2005) Effects of roughage feeding type during growing and early-fattening periods on growth performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics in Holstein steers. Korean J. Anim. Sci. Technol. 47, 769-782.
Katz, L. S. (2007) Sexual behavior of domeicated ruminants. Hormonal behavior 52, 56-63.
Kim , D. G., Jung, K. K., Sung, S. K., Choi, C. B., Kim, S. K., Kim, D. Y., and Choi, B. J. (1996) Effects of age on the carcass characteristics of Hanwoo and Holstein steers. Agri. Sci. Lib. 38, 239-248.
Kim , D. G., Jung, K. K., Sung, S. K., Choi, C. B., Kim, S. K., Kim, D. Y., and Choi, B. J. (1996) Effects of age on the carcass characteristics of Hanwoo and Holstein steers. Korean J. Anim. Sci. 38, 268-274.
Knight, T. W., Cosgrove, G. P., Death, A. F., and Anderson, C. B. (1999) Effect of interval from castration of bulls to slaughter on carcass characteristics and meat quality. New Zealand J. Agric. Res. 42, 269-277.
Korea Institute for Animal Product's Quality Evaluation (KAPE) (2011) Animal Products Grading Statistical Yearbook.
Kwak, B. O., Ha, J. K., and Jang, B. S. (1995) Effect of fat addition and bST injection on performance, blood serum metabolites and hormone of Hanwoo. Korean J. Anim. Sci. Technol. 37, 167-178.
Lunstra, D. D., Ford, J. J., and Echternakamp, S. E. (1978) Puberty in beef bulls : hormanone concentrations, growth, testicular development, sperm production and sexual aggressiveness in bulls of different breeds. J. Anim. Sci. 46, 1054- 1062.
Macleod, G. (1994) The flavor of beef. In the flavor of meat and meat products, Shaidi, F. (ed), Blackie, London, pp. 4- 37.
Melton, S. L. (1990) Effect of feeds on flavor of red meat : A review. J. Anim. Sci. 68, 4421-4435.
MIFAFF (Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forest and Fisheries). (2011) Information and data of agricultural statistics of Korea. http://ebook.maf.go.kr/07stat (assessed July 25, 2012).
Moody, W. G. (1983) Beef flavor-A review. Food Technol. 37, 227-232, 238.
Morgan, J. R., Wheeler, T. L., Koohmaraie, M., Savell, J. W., and Crouse, J. D. (1993) Meat tenderness and the calpain proteolytic system in longissims muscle of young bulls and steers. J. Anim. Sci. 71, 1471-1476.
Morrison, W. R. and Smith, L. M. (1964) Preparation of fatty acid methylesters and dimethylacetals from lipid with boron fluoridemethanol. J. Lipid Res. 5, 600-608.
National Livestock Cooperatives Federation (NLCF) (1998). Korean carcass grading standard. Seoul: National Livestock Cooperatives Federation.
Li, L.Q., Tian, W. Q., and Zan, K. S. (2011) Effects of age on quality of beef from Qinchuan cattle carcass. Agric. Sci. (China). 10, 1765-1771.
Perry, D., Nichols, P. J., and Thomson, J. M. (1998) The effect of sire breed on the melting point and fatty acid composition of sub-cutaneous fat in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 76, 87- 95.
Pethick, D. W., Harper, G. S., and Oddy, V. H. (2004) Growth, development and nutritional manipulation of marbling in cattle: A review. Australian J. Exp. Agric. 44, 705-715.
Platter, W. J., Tatum, J. D., Belk, K. E., Koontz, S. R., Chapman, P. L., and Smith, G. C. (2005) Effects of marbling and shear force on consumers' willingness to pay for beef strip loin steaks. J. Anim. Sci. 83, 890-899.
Purchas, R. W., O'Brien, L. E., and Pendleton, C. M. (1979) Some effects of nutrition and castration on meat production from male Suffolk cross (Border Leicester-Romney cross) lambs. New Zealand J. Agric. Res. 22, 375-395.
Purchas, R. W., Burnham, D. L., and Morris, S. T. (2002) Effects of growth potential and growth path on tenderness of beef longissimus muscle from bulls and steers. J. Anim. Sci. 80, 3211-3221.
Raes, K., Haak, L., Balcaen, A., Claeys, E., Demeyer, D., and De Smet, S. (2004) Effect of linseed feeding at similar linoleic acid levels on the fatty acid composition of doublemuscled Belgian Blue young bull. Meat Sci. 66, 307-315.
Risvik, E. (1994) Sensory properties and perference. Meat Sci. 36, 67-77.
Robelin, J. (1986) Growth of adipose tissues in cattle; partitionning between depots, chemical composition and cellularity. A review. Livest. Prod. Sci. 14, 349-364.
Ryoichi, S., Degychi, T., and Nagata, Y. (1993) Effectiveness of the filter paper press methods for determining the water holding capacity of meat. Fleichwirtsch 73, 1399.
SAS (2005) SAS/STAT Software for PC. Release 6.11, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
Scollan, N. D., Choi, N. J., Kurt, E., Fisher, A. V., Enser, M., and Wood, J. D. (2001) Manipulating the fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissue in beef cattle. British J. Nutr. 85, 115-124.
Sung, S. K., Jung K. K., Choi, C. B., Kim, D. G., Kim, S. G., Kim, D. Y., and Choi, B. J. (1996) Effects of castration and age on the carcass composition and retail yields of Hanwoo and Holstein. Korean J. Anim. Sci. Technol. 38, 261-267.
Turek, J. J., Schoenlein, I. A., Watkins, B. A., Vanalstine, W. G., Clark, L. K., and Knox, K. (1996) Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate responses of pigs to mycoplasmahyopneumoniae infection. J. Nutr. 126, 1541-1548.
Wheeler, T. L., Shackelford, S. D., and Koohmaraie. M. (2000) Variaton in proteolysis, sarcomere length, collagen content, and tenderness among major pork muscles. J. Anim. Sci. 78, 958-965.
Zhang, J. J., Sasaki, S., Amano, K., and Kesteloot, H. (1999) Fish consumption and mortality from all causes, ischemic heart disease, and stroke: an ecological study. Preventive Medicine. 28, 520-529.