Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Virtual Simulation of Temperature Distribution throughout Beef Packages with Time-temperature Indicator (TTI) Labels
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Virtual Simulation of Temperature Distribution throughout Beef Packages with Time-temperature Indicator (TTI) Labels
Kim, Min-Jung; Min, Sang-Gi; Lee, Seung Ju;
  PDF(new window)
If the time-temperature indicator (TTI) experienced a different temperature than the accompanied packaged food, influenced by heat transfer between the TTI, package, and ambient air, TTI would incorrectly predict the food quality changes with temperature. Temperature distributions of a finite slab with different sizes, representing beef packaged with TTI, were estimated by the finite element method (FEM). The thermal properties of the beef and TTI, such as heat capacity, density, and heat conductivity, were estimated from the relevant equations using their chemical compositions. The FEM simulations were performed for three cases: different locations of TTIs on the beef, different thicknesses of beef, and non-isothermal conditions of ambient air. The TTIs were mounted in four different locations on the beef. There was little difference in temperature between four locations of the TTI on the package surface. As the thickness of the slab increased, the temperature of the TTI changed faster, followed by the corner surface, as well as middle and bottom parts, indicating the possible error for temperature agreement between the TTI and the slab. Consequently, it was found that any place on the package could be selected for TTI attachment, but the package size should carefully be determined within a tolerable error of temperature.
time-temperature indicator (TTI);temperature distribution;response time;unsteady heat transfer;finite element method (FEM);
 Cited by
Abdalla, H. and Paul, S. R. (1985) Simulation of thawing of foods using finite element method. J. Food Process Eng. 7, 273-286. crossref(new window)

Alabbas, S. H., Ashwortha, D. C., Bezzaaa, B., Momina, S. A., and Narayanaswamy, R. (1996) Factors affecting the response time of an optical-fiber reflectance pH sensor. Sensors Actuators A. 51, 129-134.

Aversa, M., Curcio, S., Calabro, V., and Iorio, G. (2007) An analysis of the transport phenomena occurring during food drying process. J. Food Eng. 78, 922-933. crossref(new window)

Batty, J. C. and Folkman, S. L. (1983) Food Engineering Fundamentals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Bobelyn, E., Hertog, M. L. A. T. M., and Nicola, B. M. (2006) Applicability of an enzymatic time temperature integrator as a quality indicator for mushrooms in the distribution chain. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 42, 104-114. crossref(new window)

Chen, D. D., Singh, R. K., Haghighi, K., and Nelson, P. E. (1993) Finite element analysis of temperature distribution in microwaved cylindrical potato tissues. J. Food Eng. 18, 351-368. crossref(new window)

Choi, Y. and Okos, M. R. (1985) Effects of temperature and composition on the thermal properties of foods. In: Food Engineering and Process Applications, Le Maguer, M. and Jelen, P. (eds) Elsevier Inc., NY, Vol. 1, pp. 93-101.

Datskos, P. G. and Lavrik, N. V. (2004) Uncooled infrared MEMS detectors. In: Smart sensors and MEMS. Yurish, S. Y. and Gomes, M. T. S. R. (eds) Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, Vol. 181, pp. 381-419.

Ellouze, M., Pichaud, M., Bonaiti, C., Coroller, L., Couvert, O., Thuault, D., and Vaillant, R. (2008) Modelling pH evolution and lactic acid production in the growth medium of a lactic acid bacterium: application to set a biological TTI. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 128, 101-107. crossref(new window)

Farinu, A. and Baik, O. D. (2008) Convective mass transfer coefficients in finite element simulations of deep fat frying of sweet potato. J. Food Eng. 89, 187-194. crossref(new window)

Floury, J., Carson, J., and Phan, Q. T. (2008) Modeling thermal conductivity in heterogeneous media with the finite element method. Food Bioprocess Tech. 1, 161-170. crossref(new window)

Giannakourou, M. C., Koutsoumanis, K., Nychas, G. J., and Taoukis, P. S. (2005) Field evaluation of the application of time temperature integrators for monitoring fish quality in the chill chain. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 102, 323-336. crossref(new window)

Jia, C. C., Sun, D., and Cao, C. W. (2000) Finite element prediction of transient temperature distribution in a grain storage bin. J. Agr. Eng. Res. 76, 323-330. crossref(new window)

Kenny, T. (2005) Sensor fundamentals. In: Sensor Technology Handbook. Wilson, J. S. (ed) Elsevier Inc., UK, pp. 1-20.

Kerry, J. P., O'grady, M. N., and Hogan, S. A. (2006) Past, current and potential utilization of active and intelligent packaging systems for meat and muscle-based products: a review. Meat Sci. 74, 113-130. crossref(new window)

Kress-Rogers, E. (1998) Terms in instrumentation and sensors technology. In: Instrumentation and Sensors for the Food Industry. Kress-Rodgers, E. (ed) Woodhead Publishing Ltd, UK, pp. 673-691.

Lee, J. M. and Lee, S. J. (2008) Kinetic modeling for predicting the qualities of beef and color of enzyme time-temperature integrator during storage. Food Eng. Prog. 12, 241-246.

Mehauden, K., Cox, P. W., Bakalis, S., Simmons, M. J. H., Tucker, G. S., and Fryer, P. J. (2007) A novel method to evaluate the applicability of time temperature integrators to different temperature profiles. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Tech. 8, 507-514. crossref(new window)

Neethirajan, S., Jayas, D. S., and Sadistap, S. (2009) Carbon dioxide ($CO_2$) sensors for the agri-food industry: a review. Food Bioprocess Tech. 2, 115-121. crossref(new window)

Nicolai, B. M., Verboven, P., and Scheerlinck, N. (2001) The modeling of heat and mass transfer. In: Food Process Modeling. Tijskens, L. M. N., Hertog, M. L. A. T. M., and Nicolai, B. M. (Eds) Woodhead Publishing Limited, Abington Hall, Abington, Cambridge, CB1 6AH, UK, pp. 60-86.

Park, H. J., Shim, S. D., Min, S. G., and Lee, S. J. (2009) Mathematical simulation of the temperature dependence of time-temperature integrator (TTI) and meat qualities. Korean J. Food Sci. An. 29, 349-355. crossref(new window)

Pandit, R. B. and Prasad, S. (2003) Finite element analysis of microwave heating of potato: transient temperature profile. J. Food Eng. 60, 193-202. crossref(new window)

Puri, V. M. and Anantheswaran, R. C. (1993) Finite element method in food processing: a review. J. Food Eng. 19, 247-274. crossref(new window)

Santos, M. V., Zaritzky, N., and Califano, A. (2010) A control strategy to assure safety conditions in the thermal treatment of meat products using a numerical algorithms. Food Control 21, 191-197. crossref(new window)

Sun, D. W. and Zhu, X. (1999) Effect of heat transfer direction on the numerical prediction of beef freezing process. J. Food Eng. 42, 45-50. crossref(new window)

Vaikousi, H., Biliaderis, C. G., and Koutsoumanis, K. P. (2009) Applicability of a microbial time temperature indicator (TTI) for monitoring spoilage of modified atmosphere packed minced meat. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 133, 272-278. crossref(new window)

Wang, L. and Sun, D. W. (2002a) Modeling three-dimensional transient heat transfer of roasted meat during air blast cooling by the finite element method. J. Food Eng. 51, 319-328. crossref(new window)

Wang, L. and Sun, D. W. (2002b) Evaluation of performance of slow air, air blast and water immersion cooling methods in the cooked meat industry by finite element method. J. Food Eng. 51, 329-340. crossref(new window)

Yoon, S. H., Lee, C. H., Kim, D. Y., Kim, J. W., and Park, K. H. (1994) Time-temperature indicator using phospholipidphospholipase system and application to storage of frozen pork. J. Food Sci. 59, 490-493. crossref(new window)