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Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals through Modified Milk Powder and Formulas
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 Title & Authors
Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals through Modified Milk Powder and Formulas
Choi, Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Soo; Park, Sun-Hee;
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The present study was carried out to assess dietary exposure and risk for the infant population by lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) exposure through modified milk powder and formulas. Analysis of heavy metals was performed using a microwave device and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, the method for which was fully validated. Various samples (n=204), including modified milk powder, modified milk, follow-up modified milk powder, infant formula and follow- up formula, were collected from retail outlets and markets across Korea. The mean contents of heavy metals were Pb 0.0004 (modified milk)-0.010 (infant formula) mg/kg, Cd 0.002 (modified milk)-0.007 (follow-up formula) mg/kg, and As 0.004(modified milk)-0.040 (infant formula) mg/kg, respectively. For risk assessment, daily intakes of heavy metals through maximum intake of modified milk powder and formulas were calculated and compared with reference doses established by JECFA and WHO. The dietary exposures of heavy metals were Pb/d, Cd/d, and As/d, corresponding to 2.0-4.5%, 7.1-16.0%, and 0.4-0.9% of reference doses, respectively. Therefore, the level of overall dietary exposure to heavy metals for Korean infant through food intake was below 20% of the reference dose, indicating a low risk to infant consumers.
modified milk powder;formula;heavy metals;monitoring;risk assessment;
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