Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effect of NaCl on Biofilm Formation of the Isolate from Staphylococcus aureus Outbreak Linked to Ham
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effect of NaCl on Biofilm Formation of the Isolate from Staphylococcus aureus Outbreak Linked to Ham
Lee, Soomin; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Yoon, Yohan;
  PDF(new window)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of NaCl on the biofilm formations of the isolate from Staphylococcus aureus outbreaks linked to ham. The S. aureus ATCC13565 isolated from ham was exposed to NaCl concentrations of 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% supplemented in tryptic soy broth (TSB) for 24 h at , followed by plating 0.1 mL of the culture on tryptic soy agar containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% NaCl, respectively. After incubating at for 24 h, the colonies on the plates were collected and diluted to = 0.1. The diluents of S. aureus were incubated on a 96-well flat bottom plate containing TSB plus the appropriate NaCl concentrations, and the biofilm formation was quantified by crystal violet staining after being incubated at for 9 h. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) was also used for visualizing the biofilm formation of S. aureus at NaCl concentrations of 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6%. The transcriptional analysis of biofilm-related genes, such as icaA, atl, clfA, fnbA, sarA, and rbf, was conducted by quantitative real-time PCR. Crystal violet staining and CLSM showed that the biofilm formations of S. aureus increased (p<0.05) along with the NaCl concentrations. Moreover, the expression of the icaA genes was higher at the NaCl concentrations of 4% and 6% as compared with 0% of NaCl by approximately 9-folds and 20-folds, respectively. These results indicated that the NaCl formulated in processed food may increase the biofilm formations of S. aureus by increasing the icaA gene expressions.
ham;Staphylococcus aureus;biofilm;NaCl;
 Cited by
Influence of culture conditions for clinically isolated non-albicans Candida biofilm formation, Journal of Microbiological Methods, 2016, 130, 123  crossref(new windwow)
Beenken, K. E., Dunman, P. M., McAleese, F., Macapagal, D., Murphy, E., Projan, S. J., Blevins, J. S., and Smeltzer, M. S. (2004) Global gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus limits biofilm formation. Infect.Immun. 71, 4206-4211.

Bhunia, A. K. (2008) Staphylococcus aureus. In: Foodborne Microbial Pathogens. Bhunia, A. K. (ed.) Springer, NY, pp. 125-134.

Biswas, R., Voffu, L., Simon, U. K., Hentschel, P., Thumm, G., and Gotz, F. (2006) Activity of the major staphylococcal autolysin Atl. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 259, 260-268. crossref(new window)

Bower, C. K. and Daeschel, M. A. (1999) Resistance responses of microorganisms in food environments. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 50, 33-44. crossref(new window)

Cue, D., Lei, M. G., and Lee, C. Y. (2012) Genetic regulation of the intercellular adhesion locus in staphylococci. Front. Cell Infect. Microbiol. 2, 38.

Cue, D., Lei, M. G., Luong, T. T., Kuechenmeister, L., Dunman, P. M., O'Donnell, S., Rowe, S., O'Gara, J. P., and Lee, C. Y. (2009) Rbf promotes biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus via repression of icaR, a negative regulator of icaADBC. J. Bacteriol. 191, 6363-6373. crossref(new window)

Donlan, R. M. (2002) Biofilms: Microbial life on surfaces. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8, 881-890. crossref(new window)

Huang, Y., Kan, B., Lu., Y., and Szeto, S. (2009) The effect of osmotic shock on RpoS expression and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli. J. Exp. Microbiol. Immun. 13, 13-17.

Kennedy, C. A., and O'Gara, J. P. (2004) Contribution of culture media and chemical properties of polystyrene tissue culture plates to biofilm development by Staphylococcus aureus. J. Med. Microbiol. 53, 1171-1173. crossref(new window)

Le Loir, Y., Baron, F., and Gautier, M. (2003) Staphylococcus aureus and food poisoning. Genet. Mol. Res. 2, 63-76.

Livermore, D. M. (2000) Antibiotic resistance in staphylococci. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 16, S3-S10. crossref(new window)

Lim, Y., Jana, M., Luong, T. T., and Lee, C. Y. (2004) Control of glucose- and NaCl-induced biofilm formation by rbf in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Bacteriol. 186, 722-729. crossref(new window)

Lowy, F. D. (1998) Staphylococcus aureus infections. New Eng. J. Med. 339, 520-532. crossref(new window)

Otto, M. (2008) Staphylococcal biofilms. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immun. 322, 207-228.

Poulsen, L. V. (1999) Microbial biofilm in food processing. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 32, 321-326. crossref(new window)

Rode, T. M., Langsrud, S., Holck, A., and Moretro, T. (2007) Different patterns of biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus under food-related stress conditions. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 116, 372-383. crossref(new window)

Rode, T. M., Moretro T., Langsrud, S., and Holck, A. (2012) Responses of Staphylococcus aureus to environmental stresses. In: Stress Response of Foodborne Microorganisms. Wong, H. C. (ed.) Nova Science Publishers, NY, pp. 509-546.

Sambanthamoorthy, K., Schwartz, A., Nagarajan, V., and Elasri, M. O. (2008) The role of msa in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation. BMC Microbiol. 8, 221. crossref(new window)

Smith, J. L., Benedict, R. C., and Palumbo, S. A. (1982) Protection against heat-injury in Staphylococcus aureus by solutes. J. Food Prot. 45, 54.

Takenaka, S., Iwaku, M., and Hoshino, E. (2001) Artificial Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis. J. Infect. Chemothe. 7, 87-93. crossref(new window)

U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (2004) Bad bug book: Foodborne pathogenic microorganisms and natural toxins handbook, International Medical Publishing, McLean, Virginia.

Vazquez-Sanchez, D., Habimana, O., and Holck, A. (2013) Impact of food-related environmental factors on the adherence and biofilm formation of natural Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Curr. Microbiol. 66, 110-120. crossref(new window)

Xu, H., Zou, Y., Lee, H. Y., and Ahn, J. (2010) Effect of NaCl on the biofilm formation by foodborne pathogens. J. Food Sci. 75, M580-585. crossref(new window)

Yoon, H. (2013) Influence of NaCl on pathogenicity and biofilm formation of Salmonella. Master's thesis. Sookmyung Women's Univ., Seoul, Korea.

Yoon, H., Park, B. Y., Oh, M. H., Choi, K. H., and Yoon, Y. (2013) Effect of NaCl on heat resistance, antibiotic susceptibility, and Caco-2 cell invasion of Salmonella. Biomed Res. Int. Article ID 274096.

Zapun, A., Contreras-Martel, C., and Vernet, T. (2008) Penicillin- binding proteins and beta-lactam resistance. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 32, 361-385. crossref(new window)