Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Characterization of Edible Pork By-products by Means of Yield and Nutritional Composition
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Characterization of Edible Pork By-products by Means of Yield and Nutritional Composition
Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Cho, Soo Hyun; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Park, Beom Young; Moon, Sung Sil; Ba, Hoa Van;
  PDF(new window)
Basic information regarding the yield and nutritional composition of edible pork by-products, namely heart, liver, lung, stomach, spleen, uterus, pancreas, and small and large intestines, was studied. Our results revealed that the yields varied widely among the pork by-products examined; in particular, liver had the highest yield (1.35%); whereas, spleen had the lowest yield (0.16%). The approximate composition range (minimum to maximum) of these by-products was found to be: moisture 71.59-82.48%; fat 0.28-19.54%; ash 0.155-1.34%, and protein 8.45-22.05%. The highest protein, vitamin A, B2, B6, and total essential amino acid (EAA) contents were found in liver. Large intestine had the highest fat content and lowest EAA content. Heart had the highest vitamin B1 content, whereas pancreas had the highest niacin and vitamin B3 contents. The concentrations of Fe and Zn were highest in liver and pancreas. Total saturated fatty acids (SFA) levels and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels between the by-products ranged from 43.15-50.48%, and 14.92-30.16%, respectively. Furthermore, with the exception of large intestine, all the by-products showed favorable PUFA/SFA ratios. The study indicated that almost all of the pork by-products examined were good sources of important nutrients, and that these data will be of great importance in the promotion of the consumption of edible pork by-products, as well as their utilization in meat processing.
pork by-product;mineral;vitamin;amino acid;fatty acid;
 Cited by
Characterization of Chicken By-products by Mean of Proximate and Nutritional Compositions, Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, 2015, 35, 2, 179  crossref(new windwow)
Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters, Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, 2016, 36, 4, 445  crossref(new windwow)
Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board. (2013) Country Report. Available from: Accessed June, 2013.

Alonso, V., Najes, L. M., Provincial, L., Guillen, E., Gil, M., Roncales, P., and Beltran, J. A. (2012) Influence of dietary fat on pork eating quality. Meat Sci. 92, 366-373. crossref(new window)

Anderson, B. A. (1988) Comparison and nutritional value of edible meat by-products. In: Edible Meat By-Products, Advance in Meat Research. Pearson, A. M. and Dutson, T. R. (eds) Elsevier Applied Science Publisher Ltd., London, UK, pp. 15-45.

AOAC (2000) Official methods of analysis of the AOAC 986.15 Multielement method. 17th ed, Arlington, Virginia, USA, pp. 1-8.

Aristoy, M. C. and Toldra, F. (2011) Essential amino acids. In: Handbook of Analysis of Edible Animal By-Products. Nollet, L. M. L. and Toldra, F (eds) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 123-135.

Ba, H. V., Park, K. M., Dashmaa, D., and Hwang, I. H. (2014) Effect of muscle type and vacuum chiller ageing period on the chemical compositions, meat quality, sensory attributes and volatile compounds of Korean native cattle beef. Anim. Sci. J. 85, 164-173. crossref(new window)

Ba, H. V., Ryu, K. S., Nguyen, T. K. L., and Hwang, I. H. (2013) Influence of particular breed on meat quality parameters, sensory characteristics and volatile compounds. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 22, 651-658. crossref(new window)

Benoist, B. (2001) Deficiency anemia: Reexamining the nature and magnitude of the public health problem. Introduction. Nutrition 131, 564S.

Bray, G. A., Paeratakul, S., and Popkin, B. M. (2004) Dietary fat and obesity: a review of animal, clinical and epidemiological studies. Physio. Behav. 83, 549-555. crossref(new window)

Brugiapaglia, A., Lussiana, C., and Destefanis, G. (2014) Fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of beef at retail of Piemontese, Limousin and Friesian breeds. Meat Sci. 96, 568-573. crossref(new window)

Burlingame, B., Nishida, C., Uauy, R., and Weisell, R. (2009) Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition (Report of a joint FAO/ WHO Export Consultation, November, 2008). Ann. Nutr. Metab. 55, 1-380.

Channon, H. A., Kerr, M. G., and Walker, P. J. (2004) Effect of Duroc content, sex and ageing period on meat and eating quality attributes of pork loin. Meat Sci. 66, 881-888. crossref(new window)

Department of Health. (1994) Nutritional aspects of cardiovascular disease (report on health and social subjects no 46). London UK: HMSO.

Devatkal, S., Mendiratta, S. K., Kondaiah, N., Sharma, M. C., and Anjaeyulu, A. S. R. (2004) Chysicochemical, functional and microbiological quality of buffalo liver. Meat Sci. 68, 79-86. crossref(new window)

Estevez, M., Ventanas, J., Cava, R., and Puolanne, E. (2005) Characterisation of a traditional Finnish liver sausage and different types of Spanish liver pate: A comparative study. Meat Sci. 71, 657-669. crossref(new window)

Florek, M., Litwinczuk, Z., Skalecki, P., Kedzierska-Matysek, M., and Grodzicki, T. (2012) Chemical composition and inherent properties of offal from calves maintained under two production systems. Meat Sci. 90, 402-409. crossref(new window)

Folch, J., Lees, M., and Sloane-Stanley, G. H. (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipid from animal tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 26, 497-507.

Garcia-Llatas, G., Alegria, A., Barbera R., and Farre, R. (2011) Minerals and trace elements. In: Handbook of Analysis of Edible Animal By-Products. Nollet, L. M. L. and Toldra, F (eds) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 183-203.

Hoffman, L. C., Laubscher, L. L., and Leisegang, K. (2013) Nutritional value of cooked offal derived from free-range rams reared in South Africa. Meat Sci. 93, 696-702. crossref(new window)

Honikel, K. O. (2011) Composition and Calories. In: Handbook of Analysis of Edible Animal By-Products. Nollet, L. M. L. and Toldra, F (eds) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 105-121.

Honikel, K. O. and Wellhauser, R. (1993) Zusammensetzung verbrauchergerecht zugeschnittener schweinefleischteilstiicke. Fleischwirtschaft. 73, 863-866.

Jimenez-Colmenero, F., Ventanas, J., and Toldra, F. (2010) Nutritional composition of dry cured ham and its role in a healthy diet. Meat Sci. 84, 585-593. crossref(new window)

Keran, H., Salkic, A., Odobasic, A., Jasic, M., Ahmetovic, N., and Sestan, I. (2009) The importance of determination of some physical - chemical properties of Wheat and Flour. Agric. Conspec. Sci. 74, 197-200.

Kim, Y. B., Jeon, K. H., Lee, N. H., and Lee, H. J. (2008) An analysis of the nutritional quality of spreadable liver product. Korean J. Food Sci. An. 28, 21-26. crossref(new window)

Kim, Y. N. (2011) Vitamins. In: Handbook of Analysis of Edible Animal By-Products. Nollet, L. M. L. and Toldra, F (eds) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 161-182.

Kurt, S. and Zorba, O. (2007) Emulsion characteristics of beef and sheep offal. J. Muscle Foods 18, 129-142. crossref(new window)

Ladeira, M. M., Santarosa, L. C., Chizzotti, M. L., Ramos, E. M., Machado-Neto, O. R., and Oliveira, D. M. (2014) Fatty acid profile, color and lipid oxidation of meat from young bulls fed ground soybean or rumen protected fat with or without monensin. Meat Sci. 96, 597-605. crossref(new window)

Lebiedzinska, A. and Szefer, P. (2006) Vitamins B in grain and cereal-grain food, soy-products and seeds. Food Chem. 95, 116-122. crossref(new window)

Marustic, N., Petrovic, M., Vidacek, S., Petrak, T., and Medic, H. (2011) Characterization of traditional Istrian dry-cured ham by means of physical and chemical analyses and volatile compounds. Meat Sci. 88, 786-790. crossref(new window)

Mas, G., Llavall, M., Coll, D., Roca, R., Diaz, I., Oliver, M. A., Gispert, M., and Realini, C. E. (2011) Effect of an elevated monounsaturated fat diet on pork carcass and meat quality traits and tissue fatty acid composition from York-crossed barrows and gilts. Meat Sci. 89, 419-425. crossref(new window)

Mestre-Prates, J. A., Alfaia, C. M., Alves, S. P., and Branlquinho, R. J. (2011) Fatty acids. In: Handbook of Analysis of Edible Animal By-Products. Nollet, L. M. L. and Toldra, F (eds) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 137-155.

Moon, S. S., Yang, H. S., Park, G. B., and Joo, S. T. (2006) The relationship of physiological maturity and marbling judged according to Korean grading system to meat quality traits of Hanwoo beef females. Meat Sci. 74, 516-521. crossref(new window)

Morrison, W. R. and Smith, L. M. (1964) Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and dimethylacetals from lipids with boron trifluoride-methanol. J. Lipid Res. 5, 600-608.

Ngapo, T., Riendeau, M., Laberge, C., Leblanc, D., and Fortin, J. (2012) "Chilled" pork-Part I: sensory and physicochemical quality. Meat Sci. 92, 330-337. crossref(new window)

Nollet, L. M. L. and Toldra, F. (2011) Introduction of Offal meat: Definitions, regions, cultures, generalities. In: Handbook of Analysis of Edible Animal By-Products. Nollet, L. M. L. and Toldra, F (eds) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 3-11.

Ockerman, H. W. and Basu, L. (2004) By-products. In: Encyclopedia of meat sciences. Jensen, W. K., Devine, C., and Dikeman, M (eds) Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, London, pp. 104-112.

Okumura, T., Saito, K., Sowa, T., Sakuma, H., Ohhashi, F., Tameoka, N., Hirayama, M., Nakayama, S., et al. (2012) Changes in beef sensory traits as somatic-cell-cloned Japanese black steers increased in age from 20 to 30 months. Meat Sci. 90, 159-163. crossref(new window)

Pereira, P. M. C. C. and Vicente, A. F. R. B. (2013) Meat nutritional composition and nutritive role in the human diet: Review. Meat Sci. 93, 586-592. crossref(new window)

Santos, E. M., Fernandez, C. G., Jaime, I., and Rovira, J. (2003) Physicochemical and sensory characterization of Morcilla de Burgos, a traditional Spanish blood sausage. Meat Sci. 65, 893-898. crossref(new window)

SAS Institute, Inc. (2007) SAS User's Guide. Release. 9.1.3. Statistical Analysis System Institute. Cary, NC, USA.

Spackma, D. H., Stein, W. H., and Moore, S. (1958) Automatic recording apparatus for use in chromatography of amino acids. Anal Chem. 30, 1190-1206. crossref(new window)

Tapiero, H. and Tew, K. D. (2003) Trace elements in human physiology and pathology: zinc and metallothioneins. Biomed. Pharmacother. 57, 399-411. crossref(new window)

Tikk, K., Tikk, M., Aaslyng, M. D., Karlsson, A. H., Lindahl, G., and Andersen, H. J. (2007) Significance of fat supplemented diets on pork quality Connections between specific fatty acids and sensory attributes of pork. Meat Sci. 77, 275-286. crossref(new window)

Toldra, F., Aristoy, M. C., Mora, L., and Reig, M. (2012) Innovations in value-addition of edible meat by-products. Meat Sci. 92, 290-296. crossref(new window)

Wood, J. D., Richardson, R. I., Nute, G. R., Fisher, A. V., Campo, M. M., and Kasapidou, E. (2003) Effects of fatty acids on meat quality: A review. Meat Sci. 66, 21-32.

Wu, G. (2010) Functional amino acids in growth, reproduction, and health. Advances in Nutrition 1, 31-37. crossref(new window)