JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Determination of the Authenticity of Dairy Products on the Basis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols Content using GC Analysis
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Determination of the Authenticity of Dairy Products on the Basis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols Content using GC Analysis
Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Yang, Cheul-Young; Moon, Kyong-Whan; Kim, Jin-Man;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Milk fat is an important food component, and plays a significant role in the economics, functional nutrition, and chemical properties of dairy products. Dairy products also contain nutritional resources and essential fatty acids (FAs). Because of the increasing demand for dairy products, milk fat is a common target in economic fraud. Specifically, milk fat is often replaced with cheaper or readily available vegetable oils or animal fats. In this study, a method for the discrimination of milk fat was developed, using FAs profiles, and triacylglycerols (TGs) profiles. A total of 11 samples were evaluated: four milk fats (MK), four vegetable oils (VG), two pork lards (PL), and one beef tallow (BT). Gas chromathgraphy analysis were performed, to monitor the FAs content and TGs composition in MK, VG, PL, and BT. The result showed that qualitative determination of the MK of samples adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats was possible by a visual comparision of FAs, using C14:0, C16:0, C18:1n9c, C18:0, and C18:2n6c, and of TGs, using C36, C38, C40, C50, C52, and C54 profiles. Overall, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the use of FAs and TGs in the detection of adulterated milk fat, and accordingly characterize the samples by the adulterant oil source, and level of adulteration. Also, based on this preliminary investigation, the usefulness of this approach could be tested for other oils in the future.
 Keywords
dairy products;fatty acids;cheese;triacylglycerols;adulteration;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis, Journal of Food Science, 2015, 80, 9, C1945  crossref(new windwow)
 References
1.
Amigo, L., Ramos, M., Calhau, L., and Barbosa, M. (1992) Comparison of electrophoresis, isoelectric-focusing, and immunodiffusion in determinations of cows and goats milk in Serra-Da-Estrela cheeses. Lait. 72, 95-101. crossref(new window)

2.
Christie, W. W. (1989) Gas chromatography and lipids-a practical guide, Dundee, Scotland, Oily Press.

3.
Dennis, M. J. (1998) Recent developments in food authentication. Analyst, 123, pp. 151R-156R.

4.
De La Fuente, M. A. and Juarez, M. (2005) Authenticity assessment of dairy products. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 45, 563-585. crossref(new window)

5.
Fontecha, J., Mayo, I., Toledano, G., and Juarez, M. (2006) Use of changes in triacylglycerols during ripening of cheeses with high lipolysis levels for detection of milk fat authenticity. Int. Dairy J. 16, 1498-1504. crossref(new window)

6.
Fontecha, J., Rios, J. L., Lozada, L., Fraga, M. J., and Juarez, M. (2000) Composition of goat's milk fat triglycerides analysed by silver ion adsorption-TLC and GC-MS. Int. Dairy J. 10, 119-128. crossref(new window)

7.
Fox, P. F. and McSweeney, P. L. H. (1998) Dairy Chemistry and Biochemistry Blackie Academic & Professional, London. pp. 478.

8.
Goudjil, H., Fontecha, J., Fraga, M. J., and Juarez, M. (2003) TAG composition of ewe's milk fat. Detection of foreign fats. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 80, 219-222. crossref(new window)

9.
Grummer, R. R. (1991). Effect of feed on the composition of milk fat. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 3244-3257. crossref(new window)

10.
Gutierrez, R., Vega, S., Diaz, G., Sanchez, J., Coronado, M., Ramirez, A., Perez, J., Gonzalez, M., and Schettino, B. (2009) Detection of non-milk fat in milk fat by gas chromatography and linear discriminant analysis. J. Dairy Sci. 92, 1846-1855. crossref(new window)

11.
Haza, A. I., Morales, P., Martin, R., Garcia, T., Anguita, G., Sanz, B., and Hernandez, P. E. (1999) Detection and quantification of goat's cheese in ewe's cheese using a monoclonal antibody and two ELISA formats. J. Sci. Food Agr. 79, 1043-1047. crossref(new window)

12.
Hurley, H. E., Coleman, R. C., and Williams, J. H. H. (2004) Application of immunological methods for the detection of species adulteration in dairy products. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 39, 873-878. crossref(new window)

13.
Hurley, I. P., Coleman, R. C., Ireland, H. E., and Williams, J. H. H. (2004) Measurement of bovine IgG by indirect competitive ELISA as a means of detecting milk adulteration. J. Dairy Sci. 87, 543-549. crossref(new window)

14.
Jensen, R. G. (2002) Invited review: The composition of bovine milk lipids: January 1995 to December 2000. J. Dairy Sci. 85. 295-350. crossref(new window)

15.
Kennelly, J. J. (2006) The fatty acid composition of milk fat as influenced by feeding oilseeds. Anim. Food Sci. Technol. 60, 137-152.

16.
Kim, N. S., Lee, J. H., Han, K. M., Kim, J. W., Cho, S., and Kim, J. (2013) Discrimination of commercial cheeses from fatty acid profiles and phytosterol contents obtained by GC and PCA. Food Chem. 15, 40-47.

17.
Levieux, D. and Venien Rapid, A. (1994) Sensitive 2-site Elisa for detection of cows milk in goats or ewes milk using monoclonal- antibodies. J. Dairy Res. 61, 91-99. crossref(new window)

18.
Maudet, C. and Taberlet, P. (2001) Detection of cows' milk in goats' cheeses inferred from mitochondrial DNA polymorphism. J. Dairy Res. 68, 229-235. crossref(new window)

19.
Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) (2013) Food code, http://fse.foodnara.go.kr/residue/RS/jsp/menu_02_01_01.jsp

20.
Molkentin (2007) Detection of foreign fat in milk fat from different continents by triacylglycerol analysis. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Tech. 109, 505-510. crossref(new window)

21.
Park, J. M., Jeong, I. S., Kwak, B. M., Ahn, J. H., Leem, D. G., Jeong, J. Y., and Kim, J. M. (2013) Application of rapid sample preparation method and monitoring for cholesterol content in chicken egg and egg powder. Korean J. Food Sci. An. 33, 672-677. crossref(new window)

22.
Park, J. R. and Lee, D. S. (2003) Detection of adulteration in olive oils using triacylglycerols compositions by high temperature gas chromatography. Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 24, 527-530. crossref(new window)

23.
Prandini, A., Sigolo, S., and Piva, G. (2011) A comparative study of fatty acid composition and CLA concentration in commercial cheeses. J. Food Compos. Anal. 24, 55-61. crossref(new window)

24.
Regattieri, A., Gamberi, M., and Manzini, R. (2007) Traceability of food products: General framework and experimental evidence. J. Food Eng. 81, 347-356. crossref(new window)

25.
Woolfe, M. and Primrose, S. (2004) Food forensics: Using DNA technology to combat misdescription and fraud. Trends in Biotechnol. 22, 222-226. crossref(new window)

26.
Zhang, R. H., Mustafa, A. F., Ng-Kwai-Hang, K. F., and Zhao, X. (2006) Effects of freezing on composition and fatty acid profiles of sheep milk and cheese. Small Ruminant Res. 64, 203-210. crossref(new window)