Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Quality Improvement of Pork Loin by Dry Aging
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Quality Improvement of Pork Loin by Dry Aging
Lee, Cheol Woo; Lee, Ju Ri; Kim, Min Kyu; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Kyung Haeng; You, Insin; Jung, Samooel;
  PDF(new window)
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dry aging on the quality of pork loin. Longissimus lumborum muscles were dissected from the right half of five pork carcasses and were used as the control samples. The left halves of the carcasses were aged at 2±1℃ and a relative humidity of 80% for 40 d. The total aerobic bacteria count was similar between the control and dry-aged pork loin (p>0.05). Lactic-acid bacteria was absent in both the control and dry-aged pork loins. Dry-aged pork loin contained low moisture and high protein and ash compared to the controls (p<0.05). The pH was higher and cooking loss was lower in dry-aged pork loin compared to that in the control (p<0.05). Flavor related compounds, such as total free amino acid, hypoxanthine, and inosine of pork loin were higher in dry-aged pork loin; whereas, inosine 5`-monophosphate and guanosine 5`-monophosphate were low in dry-aged pork loin than control (p<0.05). There was no difference in carnosine and anserine content between dry-aged pork loin and the control (p>0.05). Dry-aged pork loin had lower hardness and shear force and received higher core in sensory evaluation than the control (p<0.05). According to the results, dry aging improved textural and sensorial quality of pork loin.
dry aging;pork loin;tenderness;sensorial quality;
 Cited by
Technological demands of meat processing–An Asian perspective, Meat Science, 2017, 132, 35  crossref(new windwow)
Meat flavour in pork and beef – From animal to meal, Meat Science, 2017, 132, 112  crossref(new windwow)
Agunbiade, S. O., Akintobi O. A., and Ighodaro, O. M. (2010) Some biochemical and organoleptic changes due to microbial growth in minced beef packaged in alluminium polyethylene trays and stored under chilled condition. Life Sci. J. 7, 47-51.

Ahnström, M. L., Seyfert, M., Hunt, M. C., and Johnson D. E. (2006) Dry aging of beef in a bag highly permeable to water vapour. Meat Sci. 73, 674-679. crossref(new window)

AOAC (2005) Official methods of analysis (18th revised ed.), Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

Blanchard, P. J., Willis, M. B., Warkup C. C., and Ellis, M. (2000) The influence of carcass backfat and intramuscular fat level on pork eating quality. J. Sci. Food Agric. 80, 145-151. crossref(new window)

Caballero, B., Sierra, V., Olivaìn, M., Vega-Naredo, I., Tomás- Zapico, C., Alvarez-Garciìa, O., Tolivia, D., Hardeland, R., Rodriìguez-Colunga, M. J., and Coto-Montes, A. (2007) Activity of cathepsins during beef aging related to mutations in the myostatin gene. J. Sci. Food Agric. 87, 192-199. crossref(new window)

Campbell, R. E., Hunt, M. C., Levis, P., and Chambers, E. (2001) Dry-aging effects on palatability of beef longissimus muscle. J. Food Sci. 66, 196-199. crossref(new window)

Chen, L., Feng, X. C., Zhang, Y. Y., Liu, X. B., Zhang, W. G., Li, C. B., Ullah, N., Xu, X. L. and Zhou, G. H. (2015) Effects of ultrasonic processing on caspase-3, calpain expression and myofibrillar structure of chicken during post-mortem ageing. Food Chem. 177, 280-287. crossref(new window)

Cruzen, S. M., Paulino, P. V. R., Lonergan, S. M., and Huff-Lonergan, E. (2014) Postmortem proteolysis in three muscles from growing and mature beef cattle. Meat Sci. 96, 854-861. crossref(new window)

DeVol, D. L., McKeith, F. K., Bechtel, P. J., Novakofski, J., Shanks, R. D., and Carr, T. R. (1988). Variation in composition and palatability traits and relationships between muscle characteristics and palatability in a random sample of pork carcasses. J. Anim. Sci. 66, 385-395. crossref(new window)

Fukunaga, T., Koga, K., Maita, Y., and Matsuoka, S. (1989) Free amino acid, carnosine and 5'-inosinic acid contents in the breast and leg meats from the cross and tripe-cross chickens of Satsuma native fowl. Bull. Fac. Agric. Kagoshima Univ. 39, 223-232.

Gruber, S. L., Tatum, J. D., Scanga, J. A., Chapman, P. L., Smith G. C., and Belk, K. E. (2006) Effects of postmortem aging and USDA quality grade on Warner-Bratzler shear force values of seventeen individual beef muscles. J. Anim. Sci. 84, 3387-3396. crossref(new window)

Huff-Lonergan, E. and Lonergan, S. M. (2005) Mechanisms of water-holding capacity of meat: The role of postmortem biochemical and structural changes. Meat Sci. 71, 194-204. crossref(new window)

Juárez, M., Cainea, W. R., Dugana, M. E. R., Hidirogloub, N., Larsena, I. L., Uttaroa, B., and Aalhus, J. L. (2011) Effects of dry-ageing on pork quality characteristics in different genotypes. Meat Sci. 88, 117-121. crossref(new window)

KMTA (Korea Meat Trade Association) (2014) Meat consumption per person in Korea. Available from

Koohmaraie, M. (1994) Muscle proteinases and meat aging. Meat Sci. 36, 93-104. crossref(new window)

Koutsidis, G., Elmore, J. S., Oruna-Concha, M. J., Campo, M. M., Wood, J. D., and Mottram, D. S. (2008) Water-soluble precursors of beef flavour. Part II: Effect of post-mortem conditioning. Meat Sci. 79, 270-277. crossref(new window)

Kristensen, L. and Purslow, P. P. (2001) The effect of ageing on the water-holding capacity of pork: Role of cytoskeletal proteins. Meat Sci. 58, 17-23. crossref(new window)

Laville, E., Sayd, T., Morael, M., Blinet, S., Chambom, C., Lepetit, J., Renand, G., and Hocquette J. F. (2009) Proteome changes during meat aging in tough and tender beef suggest the importance of apoptosis and protein solubility for beef aging and tenderization. J. Agr. Food Chem. 57, 10755-10764. crossref(new window)

Lee, C. W., Lee, S. H., Min, Y. J., Lee, S. K., Jo, C., and Jung, S. (2015) Quality improvement of strip loin from Hanwoo with low quality grade by dry aging. Korean J. Food Nutr. 28, 415-421. crossref(new window)

Macleod, G. (1994) The flavor of beef: In the flavor of meat and meat product, Blackie, London, pp. 4-73

Maltin, C., Balcerzak, D., Tilley, R., and Delday M. (2003) Determinants of meat quality: Tenderness. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 62, 337-347. crossref(new window)

Mau, J. L. and Tseng, Y. H. (1998) Nonvolatile taste components of three strains of Agrocybe cylindracea. J. Agr. Food Chem. 46, 2071-2074. crossref(new window)

Mora, L., Sentandreu, M. A., and Toldra, F. (2007) Hydrophilic chromatographic determination of carnosine, anserine, balenine, creatine, and creatinine. J. Agr. Food. Chem. 55, 4664-4669. crossref(new window)

Mottram D. S. (1998) Flavour formation in meat and meat products; A review. Food Chem. 62, 415-424. crossref(new window)

Moya, V. J., Flores, M., Aristoy, M. C., and Toldrá, F. (2001) Pork meat quality affects peptide and amino acid profiles during the ageing process. Meat Sci. 58, 197-206. crossref(new window)

Nowak, D. (2011) Enzymes in tenderization of meat - The system of calpains and other systems - A review. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 61, 231-237.

Parrish, F. C., Boles, J. A., Rust, R. E., and Olson. D. G. (1991) Dry and wet aging effects on palatability attributes of beef loin and rib steaks from three quality grades. J. Food Sci. 56, 601-603. crossref(new window)

Peiretti, P. G., Medanab, C., Visentinc, S., Giancottib, V., Zuninod, V., and Meinerid, G. (2011) Determination of carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine, pentosidine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances contents in meat from different animal species. Food Chem. 126, 1939-1947. crossref(new window)

Shackelford, S. D., Wheeler, T. L., Meade, M. K., Reagan, J. O., Byrnes, B. L., and Koohmaraie, M. (2001) Consumer impressions of tender select beef. J. Anim. Sci. 79, 2605-2614. crossref(new window)

Sitz, B. M., Calkins, C. R., Feuz, D. M., Umberger, W. J., and Eskridge K. M. (2006) Consumer sensory acceptance and value of wet-aged and dry-aged beef steaks. J. Anim. Sci. 84, 1221-1226. crossref(new window)

Smith, R. D., Nicholson, K. L., Nicholson, J. D. W., Harris, K. B., Miller, R. K., Griffin, D. B., and Savell, J. W. (2008) Dry versus wet aging of beef: Retail cutting yields and consumer palatability evaluations of steaks from US Choice and US Select short loins. Meat Sci. 79, 631-639. crossref(new window)

Tian, Y., Xie, M., Wang, W., Wu, H., Fu, Z., and Lin, L. (2007) Determination of carnosine in black-bone silky fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson) and common chicken by HPLC. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 226, 311-314. crossref(new window)

Tikk, M., Tikk, K., Tørngren, M. A., Meinert, L., Aaslyng, M. D., Karlsson, A. H., and Andersen, H. J. (2006) Development of inosine monophosphate and its degradation products during aging of pork of different qualities in relation to basic taste and retronasal flavor perception of the meat. J. Agr. Food Chem. 54, 7769-7777. crossref(new window)

Toldrá, F., Flores, M., and Aristoy, M. C. (1995) Enzyme generation of free amino acids and its nutritional significance in processed pork meats. Proceedings of the 8th International Flavor Conference, Amsterdam, pp. 1303-1322.

Warren, K. E. and Kastner, C. L. (1992) A comparison of dryaged and vacuum-aged beef strip loins. J. Muscle Foods 3, 151-157. crossref(new window)

Yano, Y., Kataho, N., Watanabe, M., Nakamura, T., and Asano, Y. (1995) Evaluation of beef aging by determination of hypoxanthine and xanthine contents: Application of a xanthine sensor. Food Chem. 52, 439-445. crossref(new window)

Yin, Y., Zhang, W. G., Zhou, G. H., and Guo, B. (2014) Comparison of protein degradation, protein oxidation, and μ-calpain activation between pale, soft, and exudative and red, firm, and nonexudative pork during postmortem aging. J. Anim. Sci. 92, 3745-3752. crossref(new window)