Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effect of Tai Chi Exercise Program on Anxiety, Powerlessness, and Self-esteem in Elderly Women
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Journal of muscle and joint health
  • Volume 18, Issue 2,  2011, pp.147-157
  • Publisher : Korean Society of Muscle and Joint Health
  • DOI : 10.5953/JMJH.2011.18.2.147
 Title & Authors
Effect of Tai Chi Exercise Program on Anxiety, Powerlessness, and Self-esteem in Elderly Women
Park, Young-Ju; Kim, Mi-Sun;
  PDF(new window)
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Tai Chi exercise program (Sun style 12 forms) on anxiety, powerlessness, self-esteem in community-dwelling elderly women. Methods: With a quasi-experimental design, a nonequivalent control group pretest-post test was used. Elderly women who agreed to participate in the study were assigned into an experimental group (n=23), or a control group (n=23). The experimental group participated in Tai Chi exercise program for 50 minutes per session, 2 times a week for 11 weeks. Tai Chi exercise program consisted of 10 minutes for warm-up, 35 minutes for main session, and 5 minutes for cooling down exercises. Anxiety, powerlessness, and self-esteem were measured with questionnaires to evaluate the effect of Tai Chi exercise program. The data were analyzed by using Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney test by a SPSS WIN 12.0 program. Results: The experimental group showed significant improvement for self-esteem (z=-3.130, p=.002), powerlessness(z=-3.267, p=.001), and anxiety (z=-2.932, p=.003) when compared to control group, Conclusions: Tai chi exercise program may be an effective nursing intervention to improve self-esteem and to reduce powerlessness and anxiety in community-dwelling elderly women.
Anxiety;Self-Esteem;Tai Chi;
 Cited by
일 지역 노인의 운동이행 영향요인 분석,고영지;이주희;

Journal of muscle and joint health, 2012. vol.19. 2, pp.223-232 crossref(new window)
타이치운동이 여성노인의 희망과 의존성 및 지각된 건강상태에 미치는 효과,박영주;김자옥;

Journal of muscle and joint health, 2014. vol.21. 2, pp.106-113 crossref(new window)
Adler, P. A. (2007). The effects of Tai Chi on pain and function in older adults With osteoarthritis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Case Western Reserve University, USA.

Blake, H. & Batson, M. (2009). Exercise intervention in brain injury: a pilot randomized study of Tai Chi Qigong. Clinical Rehabilitation, 23(7), 589-598. crossref(new window)

Choi, M. K. (2007). Effects of Tai Chi exercise on physical fitness and self-esteem of chronic schizophrenics. Unpublished master's thesis, Chungnam National University, Daejeon.

Christmas, C. & Andersen, R. A. (2000). Exercise and older patients: guidelines for the clinician. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 48(3), 318-324.

Chung, S. E. (1997). A study of Tool development for Powerlessness of elderly. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ewha Womans University. Seoul.

Field, T., Diego, M., & Hernandez-Reif, M. (2010). Tai Chi/Yoga effects on anxiety, heartrate, EEG and math computations. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 16(4), 235-238. crossref(new window)

Gemmell, C. & Leathem, J. M. (2006). A study investigating the effects of Tai Chi Chuan: Individuals with traumatic brain injury compared to controls. Brain Injury, 20(2), 151-156. crossref(new window)

Han, S. S., Bak, W. S., & Yang, H. I. (2007). The effect of a Tai Chi Self-help program for Fibromyalgia patient. Journal of Muscle and Joint Health, 14(2), 169-180.

Hartman, C. A., Manos, T. M., Winter, C., Hartman, D. M., Li, B., & Smith, J. C. (2000). Effects of Tai Chi training on function and quality of life indicators in older adults with osteoarthritis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 48(12), 1553-1559.

Jon, B. J. (1974). Self-esteem: A test of its measurability. The Graduate School, Yonsei University, 11, 107-129.

Jung, S. H. & Chung, K. H. (2010). The effects of aerobic exercise therapy on physical functions in the elderly. Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing, 21(2), 252-262. crossref(new window)

Kim, C. H. (2005). A study on the effects of Tai Chi training on the recognized health. Unpublished master's thesis, Daejeon University, Daejeon.

Kim, H. G., Nam, H. K., & Cho, K. S. (2008). The effect of a walking program on physical health in older adults. Journal of Muscle and Joint Health, 15(2), 183-190.

Kim, J. T. (1978). The relationship between trait anxiety and social tendency.-Based on Spielberger's STAI. Unpublished master's thesis, Korea University, Seoul.

Kim, S. A. (2011). The effects of BeHas exercise program on muscle strength and flexibility in institutionalized elders. Journal of Muscle and Joint Health, 18(1), 93-102. crossref(new window)

Ko, G. T., Tsang, P. C., & Chan, H. C. (2006). A 10-week Tai Chi program improved the blood pressure, lipid profile and SF-36 scores in Hong Kong Chinese women. Medical Science monitor, 12(5), 196-199.

Korea National statistical office. (2011a, May). 2010 population and housing census. Retrieved September 11, 2011, from

Korea National statistical office. (2011b, March). 2010 Social Indicators in Korea. Retrieved August 24, 2011, from

Lam, P. (2006). Teaching Tai Chi effectively. Australia: Tai Chi Production.

Ministry of Health and Welfare & Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010, December). 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Retrieved August 23, 2011, from

National Health Insurance Corporation. (2011, February). 2010 Health Insurance statistics. Retrieved September 11, 2011, from

Park, J. M. & Han, S. H. (2003). The effect of exercise program on health and depression in the elderly. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 33(2), 220-227.

Park, S. H. & So, H. Y. (2008). The relationship of powerlessness, sense of belonging and nutritional status in the elderly. Korean Academic society of Rehabilitation Nursing, 11(2), 81-89.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press.

Song, Z. X. (2009). The effect of modified Tai Chi on the activity physical fitness and life satisfaction of the elderly. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Kyungpook National University, Daegu.

Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. (1970). Manual for State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto: California Consulting Psychological Press.

Tsai, J. C., Wang, W. H., Chan, P., Lin, L. J., Wang, C. H., Tomlinson, B., Hsieh, M. H., Yang, H. Y., & Liu, J. C. (2003). The beneficial effects of Tai Chi Chuan on blood pressure and lipid profile and anxiety status in a randomized controlled trial. The Journal of alternative and complementary medicine, 9(5), 747-754. crossref(new window)

Wang, Y. (2008). Tai Chi exercise and the improvement of mental and physical health among college students. Medicine and Sport Science, 52, 135-145. crossref(new window)

Yeh, G. Y., McCarthy, E. P., Wayne, P. M., Stevenson, L. W., Wood, M. J., Forman, D., Davis, R. B., & Phillips, R. S. (2011). Tai Chi exercise in patients with chronic heart ailure: a randomized clinical trial. Archives of Internal Medicine, 171(8), 750-757. crossref(new window)