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Exploration and Application of Regulatory PM10 Measurement Data for Developing Long-term Prediction Models in South Korea
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 Title & Authors
Exploration and Application of Regulatory PM10 Measurement Data for Developing Long-term Prediction Models in South Korea
Yi, Seon-Ju; Kim, Ho; Kim, Sun-Young;
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Many cohort studies have reported associations of individual-level long-term exposures to and health outcomes. Individual exposures were often estimated by using exposure prediction models relying on data measured at national regulatory monitoring sites. This study explored spatial and temporal characteristics of regulatory measurement data in South Korea and suggested concentration metrics as long-term exposures for assessing health effects in cohort studies. We obtained hourly data from the National Institute of Environmental Research for 2001~2012 in South Korea. We investigated spatial distribution of monitoring sites using the density and proximity in each of the 16 metropolitan cities and provinces. The temporal characteristics of measurement data were examined by annual/seasonal/diurnal patterns across urban background monitoring sites after excluding Asian dust days. For spatial characteristics of measurement data, we computed coefficient of variation (CV) and coefficient of divergence (COD). Based on temporal and spatial investigation, we suggested preferred long-term metrics for cohort studies. In 2010, 294 urban background monitoring sites were located in South Korea with a site over an area of and distant from another site by 31.0 km on average. Annual average concentrations decreased by 19.8% from 2001 to 2012, and seasonal patterns were consistent over study years with higher concentrations in spring and winter. Spatial variability was relatively small with 6~19% of CV and 21~46% of COD across 16 metropolitan cities and provinces in 2010. To maximize spatial coverage and reflect temporal and spatial distributions, our suggestion for metrics representing long-term exposures was the average for one or multiple years after 2009. This study provides the knowledge of all available data measured at national regulatory monitoring sites in South Korea and the insight of the plausible longterm exposure metric for cohort studies.
Particulate matter;Regulatory measurement data;Temporal variation;Spatial variation;Long-term exposure;
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