Characterizing Par ticle Matter on the Main Section of the Seoul Subway Line-2 and Developing Fine Particle Pollution Map

Title & Authors
Characterizing Par ticle Matter on the Main Section of the Seoul Subway Line-2 and Developing Fine Particle Pollution Map
Lee, Eun-Sun; Park, Min-Bin; Lee, Tae-Jung; Kim, Shin-Do; Park, Duck-Shin; Kim, Dong-Sool;

Abstract
In present, the Seoul City is undergoing traffic congestion problems caused by rapid urbanization and population growth. Thus the City government has reorganized the mass transportation system since 2004 and the subway has become a very important means for public transit. Since the subway system is typically a closed environment, the indoor air quality issues have often raised by the public. Especially since a huge amount of PM (particulate matter) is emitted from ground tunnels passing through the subway train, it is now necessary to assess the characteristics and behaviors of fine PM inside the tunnel. In this study, the concentration patterns of $\small{PM_1}$, $\small{PM_{2.5}}$, and $\small{PM_{10}}$ in the Seoul subway line-2 were analyzed by real-time measurement during winter (Jan 13, 2015) and summer (Aug 7, 2015). The line-2 consisting of 51 stations is the most busy circular line in Seoul having the railway of 60.2 km length. The the one-day average $\small{PM_{10}}$ concentrations were $\small{148{\mu}g/m^3}$ in winter and $\small{66.3{\mu}g/m^3}$ in summer and $\small{PM_{2.5}}$ concentrations were $\small{118{\mu}g/m^3}$ and $\small{58.5{\mu}g/m^3}$, respectively. The $\small{PM_{2.5}/PM_{10}}$ ratio in the underground tunnel was lower than the outdoor ratio and also the ratio in summer is higher than in winter. Further the study examined structural types of underground subsections to explain the patterns of elevated PM concentrations in the line-2. The subsections showing high PM concentration have longer track, shorter curvature radius, and farther from the outdoor stations. We also estimated the outdoor PM concentrations near each station by a spatial statistical analysis using the $\small{PM_{10}}$ data obtained from the 40 Seoul Monitoring Sites, and further we calculated $\small{PM_{2.5}/PM_{10}}$ and $\small{PM_1/PM_{10}}$ mass ratios near the outdoor subway stations by using our observed outdoor $\small{PM_1}$, $\small{PM_{2.5}}$, and $\small{PM_{10}}$ data. Finally, we could develop pollution maps for outdoor $\small{PM_1}$ and $\small{PM_{2.5}}$ near the line-2 by using the kriging method in spatial analysis. This methodology may help to utilize existing $\small{PM_{10}}$ database when managing and control fine particle problems in Korea.
Keywords
PM;Subway;Tunnel;Pollution map;$\small{PM_{2.5}/PM_{10}{\cdot}P}$$\small{M_1/PM_{10}{\cdot}PM_1/PM_{2.5}}$ ratio;
Language
Korean
Cited by
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