Advanced SearchSearch Tips
An Overview of Problems Cyanotoxins Produced by Cyanobacteria and the Solutions Thereby
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
An Overview of Problems Cyanotoxins Produced by Cyanobacteria and the Solutions Thereby
Jeon, Bong-seok; Han, Jisun; Kim, Seog-Ku; Ahn, Jae-Hwan; Oh, Hye-Cheol; Park, Ho-Dong;
  PDF(new window)
Cyanobacteria frequently dominate the freshwater phytoplankton community in eutrophic waters. Cyanotoxins can be classified according to toxicity as neurotoxin (Anatoxin-a, Anatoxin-a(s), Saxitoxins) or hepatotoxin (microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin). Microcystins are present within cyanobacterial cells generally, and they are extracted by the damage of cell membrane. It has been reported that cyanotoxins caused adverse effects and they are acculmulated in aquatic oganisms of lake, river and ocean. In natural, microcystins are removed by biodegradation of microorganisms and/or feeding of predators. However, in process of water treatment, the use of copper sulfate to remove algal cells caused extraction of a mess of microcystins. Microcysitns are removed by physical, chemical and biological methods according to reports. The reduction of nutrients (N and P) inflow is basic method of prevention of cyanobacteria bloom formation. However, it is less effective than investigation because nutrients already present in the eutrophic lake. In natural lake, cyanobacteria bloom are not formed because macrophytes invade from coastal lake by eutrophication. Therefore, a coastal lake has to recover to prevent of cyanobacteria bloom formation.
Cyanobacteria Bloom;Eutrophic Lake;Cyanotoxin;Microcystin;
 Cited by
Dawson, R. M., "The toxicology of microcystins," Toxicon, 36(7), 953-962(1998). crossref(new window)

Carmichael, W., "Health effects of toxin-producing cyanobacteria: The CyanoHABs," Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess.: An Int. J., 7(5), 1393-1407(2001). crossref(new window)

Harada, K., Ohtani, I., Iwamoto, K., Suzuki, M., Watanabe, M. F., Watanabe, M. and Terao, K., "Isolation of cylindrospermopsin from a cyanobacterium Umezakia natans and its screening method," Toxicon, 32(1), 73-84(1994). crossref(new window)

Matsunaga, H., Harada, K., Senma, M., Ito, Y., Yasuda, N., Ushida, S. and Kimura, Y., "Possible cause of unnatural mass death of wild birds in a pond in Nishinomiya, Japan: Sudden appearance of toxic cyanobacteria," Nat. Toxins, 7(2), 81-84(1999). crossref(new window)

Nakamura, K., Watanabe, K., Ishikawa, K., Kumagai, M., Miyabara, Y., Inuzuka, R., Yokota, K., Oguma, K. and Park, H., "Accumulation of microcystin-LR in dead domestic duck at Iso harbor, Lake Biwa, Japan (in Japanese)," Japanese J. Omithol., 62(2), 153-165(2013).

Carmichael, W., "Cyanobacteria secondary metabolites-the cyanotoxins," J. Appl. Microbiol., 72(6), 445-459(1992).

MacKintosh, C., Beattie, K. A., Klumpp, S., Cohen, P. and Codd, G. A., "Cyanobacterial microcystin-LR is a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A from both mammals and higher plants," FEBS Lett., 264(2), 187-192(1990). crossref(new window)

Kondo, F., Ikai, Y., Oka, H., Okumura, M., Ishikawa, N., Harada, K., Matsuura, K., Murata, H. and Suzuki, M., "Formation, Characterization, and Toxicity of the Glutathione and Cysteine Conjugates of Toxic Heptapeptide Microcystins," Chem. Res. Toxicol., 5(5), 591-596(1992). crossref(new window)

Park, H., "Studies on the Toxins Produecd by Blue-Green Algae (in Japanese)," J. JPN Soc. Wat. Environ., 37(5), 169-174 (2014). crossref(new window)

Xie, L., Hanyub, T., Futatsugi, N., Komatsuc, M., Steinmand, A. D. and Park H., "Inhibitory effect of naringin on microcystin-LR uptake in the freshwater snail Sinotaia histrica," Environ. Toxicol. Phar., 38, 430-437(2014). crossref(new window)

Harada, K., Nagai, H., Kimura, Y., Suzuki, M., Park, H., Watanabe, M. F., Luukkainen, R., Sivonen, K. and Carmichael, W. W., "Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric detection of anatoxin-a, a neurotoxin from cyanobacteria," Tetrahedron, 49(41), 9251-9260(1993). crossref(new window)

Park, H., Watanabe, M. F., Harada, K., Nagai, H., Suzuki, M., Watanabe, M. and Hayashi, H., "Hepatotoxin (microcystin) and neurotoxin (anatoxin-a) contained in natural blooms and strains of cyanobacteria from Japanese freshwaters," Nat. Toxins, 1(6), 353-360(1993). crossref(new window)

Swanson, K. L., Allen, C. N., Aronstam, R. S., Rapoport, H. and Albuquerque, E. X., "Molecular mechanisms of the potent and stereospecific nicotinic receptor agonist (+)-anatoxin-a," Mol. Pharmacol., 29(3), 250-257(1986).

Falconer, I. R. and Humpage A. R., "Cyanobacterial (bluegreen algal) toxins in water supplies: Cylindrospermopsins," Environ. Toxicol., 21(4), 299-304(2006). crossref(new window)

Hawkins, P. R., Runnegar, M. T. C., Jackson, A. R. and Falconer, I. R., "Severe hepatotoxicity caused by the tropical cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) Seenaya and Subba Raju isolated from a domestic supply reservoir," Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 50 (5), 1292-1295(1985).

Banker, R., Carmeli, S., Hadas, O., Teltsch, B., Porat, R. and Sukenik, A., "Identification of cylindrospermopsin in the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon ovalisporum (Cyanophyceae) isolated from lake Kinneret, Israel," J. Phycol., 33(4), 613-616(1997). crossref(new window)

Schembri, M. A., Neilan, B. A. and Saint, C. P., "Dentification of genes implicated in toxin production in the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii," Environ. Toxicol., 16(5), 413-421(2001). crossref(new window)

Li, R., Carmichael, W. W., Brittain, S., Eaglesham, G. K., Shaw, G. R., Yongding, L. and Watanabe, M. M., "First report of the cyanotoxins cylindrospermopsin and deoxycylindrospermopsin from Raphidiopsis curvata (cyanobacteria)," J. Phycol., 37(6), 1121-1126(2001). crossref(new window)

Larson, D., Ahlgren, G. and Willen, "Bioaccumulation of microcystins in the food web: a field study of four Swedish lakes," Inland Waters, 4(1), 91-104(2014). crossref(new window)

Katagami, Y., Tanaka, T., Honma, T., Yokoyama, A. and Park, H., "Bioaccumulation of a cyanobacterial toxin, microcystin, on Stenopsyche marmorata and the ecological implications for its impact on the ecosystem of the Tenryu River, Japan (in Japanese)," Japanese J. Limnol., 65(1), 1-12 (2004). crossref(new window)

Park, H., "Dynamics and bioaccumulation of microcystin in aquatic ecosystem (in Japanese)," Kaiyo Monthly, 37(5), 325-334(2005).

Miller, M. A., Kudela, R. M., Mekebri, A., Crane, D., Oates, S. C., Tinker, M. T., Staedler, M., Miller, W. A., Toy-Choutka, S., Dominik, C., Hardin, D., Langlois, G., Murray, M., Ward, K. and Jessup, D. A., "Evidence for a novel marine harmful algal bloom: cyanotoxin (microcystin) transfer from land to sea otters," PLoS One 5(9): e12576. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012576, (2010). crossref(new window)

Takahashi, T., Umehara, A. and Tsutsumi, H., "Diffusion of microcystins (cyanobacteria hepatotoxins) from the reservoir of Isahaya Bay, Japan, into the marine and surrounding ecosystems as a result of large-scale drainage," Mar. Pollut. Bull., 89(1-2), 250-258(2014). crossref(new window)

Lambert, T. W., Holmes, C. F. B. and Hrudey, S. E., "Adsorption of microcystin-LR by activated carbon and removal in full scale water treatment," Water Res., 30(6), 1411-1422 (1996). crossref(new window)

Tsuji, K., Watanuki, T., Kondo, F., Watanabe, M. F., Nakazawa, H., Suzuki, M., Uchida, H. and Harada, K., "Stability of Microcystins from cyanobacteria-iv. Effect of chlorination on decomposition," Toxicon, 35(7), 1033-1041(1997). crossref(new window)

Rositano, J., Nicholson, B. C. and Pieronne, P., "Destruction of cyanobacterial toxins by ozone," Ozone: Sci. Eng., 20(3), 223-238(1998). crossref(new window)

Tsuji, K., Naito, S., Kondo, F., Ishikawa, N., Watanabe, M. F., Suzuki, M. and Harada, K., "Stability of microcystins from cyanobacteria: effect of light on decomposition and isomerization," Environ. Sci. Technol., 28(1), 173-177(1994). crossref(new window)

Jeon, B., Han, J., Makino, K. and Park, H., "Degradation of microcystin and possible phosphorus removal mechanism by electrochemical treatment," Environ. Eng. Sci., 31(9), 525-531(2014). crossref(new window)

Lawton, L. A. and Robertson, P. K. J., "Physico-chemical treatment methods for the removal of microcystins (cyanobacterial hepatotoxins) from potable waters," Chem. Soc. Rev., 28, 217-224(1999). crossref(new window)

Han, J., Jeon B., Futatsuki, N. and Park, H., "The effect of alum coagulation for in-lake treatment of toxic Microcystis and other cyanobacteria related organisms in microcosm experiments," Ecotox. Environ. Safe., 96, 17-23(2013). crossref(new window)

Bourne, D. G., Jones, G. J., Blakerley, R. L., Jones, A., Negri, A. P. and Riddles, P., "Enzymatic pathway for the bacterial degradation of the cyanobacterial cyclic peptide toxin microcystin LR," Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 62(11), 4086-4094 (1996).

Park, H., Sasaki, Y., Maruyama, T., Yanagisawa, E., Hiraishi, A. and Kato, K., "Degradation of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin by a new bacterium isolated from a hypertrophic lake," Environ. Toxicol., 16, 337-343(2001). crossref(new window)

Maruyama, T., Park, H., Ozawa, K., Tanaka, Y., Sumino, T., Hamana, K., Hiraishi, A. and Kato, K., "Sphingosinicella microcystinivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a microcystin-degrading bacterium," Int. J. Syst. Evol. Micro., 56, 58-59(2006).

Ho, L., Hoefel, D., Saint, C. P. and Newcombe, G., "Isolation and identification of a novel microcystin-degrading bacterium from a biological sand filter," Water Res., 41(20), 4685-4695 (2007). crossref(new window)

Ho, L., Tang, T., Monis, P. T. and Hoefel, D., "Biodegradation of multiple cyanobacterial metabolites in drinking water supplies," Chemosphere, 87(10), 1149-1154(2012). crossref(new window)

Zhang, M., Pan, G. and Yan, H., "Microbial biodegradation of microcystin-RR by bacterium Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05," J. Environ. Sci., 22(2), 168-175(2010). crossref(new window)

Yan, H., Wang, H., Wang, J., Yin, C., Ma, S., Liu, X. and Yin, X., "Cloning and expression of the first gene for biodegrading microcystin LR by Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05," J. Environ. Sci., 24(10), 1816-1822(2012). crossref(new window)

Alamri, S. A., "Biodegradation of microcystin by a new Bacillus sp. isolated from a Saudi freshwater lake," Afr. J. Biotechnol., 9(39), 6552-6559(2010).

Chen, J., Hu, L., Zhou, W., Yan, S., Yang, J., Xue, Y. and Shi, Z., "Degradation of microcystin-LR and RR by a Stenotrophomonas sp. strain EMS isolated from Lake Taihu, China," Int. J. Mol. Sci., 11(3), 896-911(2010). crossref(new window)

Jiang, Y., Shao, J., Wu, X., Xu, Y. and Li, R., "Active and silent members in the mlr gene cluster of a microcystindegrading bacterium isolated from Lake Taihu, China," FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 322(2), 108-114(2011). crossref(new window)

Takenaka, S. and Watanabe, M. F., "Microcystin LR degradation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease," Chemosphere, 34(4), 749-757(1997). crossref(new window)

Zhang, M., Yan, H. and Pan, G., "Microbial degradation of microcystin-LR by Ralstonia solanacearum," Environ. Technol., 32(15), 1779-1787(2011). crossref(new window)

Rapala, J., Berg, K.A., Lyra, C., Niemi, R. M., Manz, W., Suomalainen, S., Paulin, L. and Lahti, K., "Paucibacter toxinivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium that degrades cyclic cyanobacterial hepatotoxins microcystins and nodularin.," Int. J. Syst. Evol. Micro., 55, 1563-1568(2005). crossref(new window)

Lemes, G. A. F., Kersanach, R., Pinto, L. S., Dellagostin, O. A., Yunes, J. and Matthiensen, A., "Biodegradation of microcystins by aquatic Burkholderia sp. from a South Brazilian coastal lagoon.," Ecotox. Environ. Safe., 69(3), 358-365(2008). crossref(new window)

Hu, L., Yang, J., Zhou, W., Yin, Y., Chen, J. and Shi, Z., "Isolation of a Methylobacillus sp. that degrades microcystin toxins associated with cyanobacteria," New Biotechnol., 26 (3-4), 205-211(2009). crossref(new window)

Jia, Y., Du, J., Song, F., Zhao, G. and Tian, X., "A fungus capable of degrading microcystin-LR in the algal culture of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806," Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 166, 987-996(2012). crossref(new window)

Dziga, D., Wasylewski, M., Wladyka, B., Nybom, S. and Meriluoto, J., "Microbial degradation of microcystins," Chem. Res. Toxicol., 26(6), 841-852(2013). crossref(new window)

Park, H., "Dynamics of the microcystin in aquatic ecosystem (in Japanese)," Bullet. Plankton Soc. Jap., 55(1), 58-62(2008).

Chorus, I. and Bartram, J., "Toxic cyanobacteria in water: A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management," WHO(1999).

WHO, "Guidelines for drinking water quality," 2nd ed. Addendum to Volume 2, Health criteria and other supporting information, Geneva, Switzerland(1998).