A Method of Computing the Frequency-Dependent Ground Impedance of Horizontally-buried Wires

- Journal title : The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
- Volume 65, Issue 5, 2016, pp.745-752
- Publisher : The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
- DOI : 10.5370/KIEE.2016.65.5.745

Title & Authors

A Method of Computing the Frequency-Dependent Ground Impedance of Horizontally-buried Wires

Cho, Sung-Chul; Lee, Bok-Hee;

Cho, Sung-Chul; Lee, Bok-Hee;

Abstract

The parameters of Debye's equation were applied to analyze the frequency-dependent ground impedance of horizontally-buried wires. We present a new method, based on Debye's equation, of analyzing the effect of polarization on frequency-dependent ground impedance. The frequency-dependent ground impedances of a horizontally-buried wire are directly measured and calculated by applying sinusoidal current in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz. Also, the results obtained in this work were compared with the data calculated from empirical equations and commercial programs. A new methodology using the delta-gap source model is proposed in order to calculate frequency-dependent ground impedance when the ground current is injected at the middle-point of the horizontal ground electrode. The high frequency ground impedance of horizontal electrodes longer than 30 m is larger or equal to its low frequency ground resistance. Consequently, the frequency-dependent ground impedance simulated with the proposed method is in agreement with the experimental data, and the validity of the computational simulation approach is confirmed.

Keywords

Grounding system;Frequency-dependent ground impedance;Dielectric polarization;Debye's equation;Delta-gap source;

Language

Korean

References

1.

L. D. Grcev, F. Dawalibi, "An electromagnetic model for transients in grounding systems", IEEE Trans. Power Del., Vol.5, No.4, 1990.

2.

V. Doric, D. Poljak, V. Roje, "Transient analysis of the grounding electrode based on the wire antenna theory", Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, Vol. 28, pp.801-807, 2003.

3.

S. Visacro, R. Alipio, "Frequency dependence of soil parameters: Experimental results, predicting formula and influence on the lightning response of ground electrodes", IEEE Trans. Power Del., Vol.27, No.2, pp.927-935, 2012.

4.

R. Alipio and S. Visacro, "Frequency dependence of soil parameters: Effect on the Lightning Response of Grounding Electrodes", IEEE Trans. EMC, Vol.55, No.1, pp.132-139, Feb. 2013.

5.

C. H. Ahn, S. C. Cho, B. H. Lee, "Numerical calculation for frequency-dependent grounding impedance of horizontal ground electrodes", Proc. 8th Asia-Pacific International Conference on Lightning, 2013.

6.

K. S. Cole, R. H. Cole, "Dispersion and absorption in dielectrics I: Alternating current characteristics", The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol.9, pp.341-351, 1941.

7.

J. R. Wait, "Physical model for the complex resistivity of the earth", Electronics letters, Vol.23, No.19, 1987.

8.

P. N. Sen, W. C. Chew, "The frequency dependent dielectric and conductivity response of sedimentary rocks", Journal of Microwave Power, Vol.18, No.1, 1983.

9.

L. D. Grcev and M. Heimbach, "Frequency Dependent and Transient Characteristics of Substation Grounding Systems", IEEE Trans. Power Del., Vol.12, No.1, pp. 172-178, 1997.

10.

S. Visacro, R. Alipio, M. H. M. Vale, and C. Pereira, "The Response of Grounding Electrodes to Lightning Currents: The Effect of Frequency-dependent Soil Resistivity and Permittivity", IEEE Trans. EMC, Vol.53, No.2, pp.401-406, 2011.

11.

J. C. Santamarina, "Soil behavior at the microscale: Particle forces", Proc. Symp. Soil Behavior and Soft Ground Construction, in honor of Charles C. Ladd, MIT, Cambridge, pp.1-32. 2001.

12.

N. Liu, "Soil and site characterization using electromagnetic waves", Ph. D, dissertation, Virginia Tech Univ., U.S.A., 2007.

13.

W. C. Gibson, The method of Moments in Electromagnetics, Chapman & Hall/CRC, pp. 33-79, 2008.

14.

C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory Analysis and Design-Third Edition, Wiley-Interscience, pp.447-450, 2005.

15.

IEEE Std. 81.2-1991, "IEEE Guide for measurement of impedance and safety characteristics of large extended or interconnected grounding systems", pp.9-17, 1991.

16.

J. H. Choi, B. H. Lee, "Frequency-dependent grounding impedance of the counterpoise based on the dispersed currents", Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, Vol.7, No.4, pp.589-595, 2012.

17.

M. Akbari, K. Sheshyekani, and M. R. Alemi, "The Effect of Frequency Dependence of Soil Electrical Parameters on the Lightning Performance of Grounding Systems", IEEE Trans. EMC, Vol.55, No.4, pp.739-746, 2013.

18.

S. Visacro, M. B. Guimaraes and L. S. Araujo, Experimental impulse response of grounding grids", Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 94, pp. 92-98, 2013.

19.

L. Grcev, "Impulse Efficiency of Ground Electrodes", IEEE Trans. PD., Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 441-451, 2009.

20.

F. Roth, P. Genderen, M. Verhaegen, "Analysis of the influence of mine and soil properties on features extracted from GPR data", Proc. SPIE4394, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets VI, 2001.

21.

K. Klein, J. C. Santamarina, "Methods for broad-ban dielectric permittivity measurements(Soil-water mixtures, 5 Hz to 1.3 GHz), Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol.20, No.2, pp.168-178, 1997.

22.

J. H. Scott, "Electrical and magnetic properties of rock and soil", United States Department of the Interior Geological Survey, 1983.

23.

D. P. Snowden, G. C. Morris, "Measurement of the dielectric constant of soil", IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol.NS-32, No.6, 1985.

24.

R. L. van Dam, B. Borchers, "Methods for prediction of soil dielectric properties: a review", Proc. of the SPIE, Vol.5794, pp.188-197, 2005.

25.

K. Titov, A. Tarasov, Y. Ilyin, N. Seleznev, A. Boyd, "Relationship between induced polarization relaxation time and hydraulic properties of sandstone", Geophysical Journal International, Vol.180, pp.1095-1106, 2010.

26.

S. Visacro and G. Rosado, "Response of Grounding Electrodes to Impulsive Currents: An Experimental Evaluation", IEEE Trans. EMC, Vol.51, No.1, pp.161-164, 2009.

27.

N. Wagner, K. Kupfer, E. Trinks, "A broadband dielectric spectroscopy of the relaxation behaviour of subsoil", Proc. 7th ISEMA, pp.1-8, 2007.