Intravenous Toxicity Study of Water-soluble Ginseng Pharmacopuncture in SD Rats Yu, Jun-Sang; Sun, Seung-Ho; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kwon, Ki-Rok;
Objectives: Radix Ginseng has been used for thousands of years to treat a wide variety of diseases. Radix ginseng has also been used as a traditional medicine for boosting Qi energy and tonifying the spleen and lungs. Traditionally, its effect could be obtained orally. Nowadays, a new method, the injection of herbal medicine, is being used. This study was performed to investigate the single-dose intravenous toxicity of water-soluble ginseng pharmacopuncture (WSGP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: All experiments were carried out at Biotoxtech, an institute authorized to perform non-clinical studies under the regulation of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). At the age of six weeks, 40 SD rats, 20 male rats and 20 female rats, were allocated into one of 4 groups according to the dosages they would receive. The WSGP was prepared in the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute under the regulation of Korea-Good Manufacturing Practice (K-GMP). Dosages of WSGP were 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL/animal for the experimental groups, and normal saline was administered to the control group. The rat's general conditions and body weights, the results of their hematological and biochemistry tests, and their necropsy and histopathological findings were investigated to identify the toxicological effect of WSGP injected intravenously. The effect was examined for 14 days after the WSGP injection. This study was performed under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Biotoxtech. Results: No deaths were found in this single-dose toxicity test on the intravenous injection of WSGP, and no significant changes in the rat's general conditions and body weights, the results on their hematological and biochemistry test, and their necropsy findings were observed during the test. The local area of the injection site showed minial change. The lethal dose was assumed to be over 1.0 mL/animal in both sexes. Conclusion: These results indicate that WSGP is safe at dosages up to 1 mL/animal.
aqua acupuncture;herbal acupuncture;intravenous toxicity;radix ginseng;
Kim J, Kang DI. A descriptive statistical approach to the Korean pharmacopuncture therapy. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2010;3(3):141-9.
Kang BS, Kang SS, Kang SK, Kang CG, Koh WC, Koh HK, et al. [Translated into Korean: Encyclopedia of traditional Chinese medicine]. Seoul: Jungdam Publishing Co; 1997. p. 4484. Korean.
Tanaka O, Kasai R. Saponins of ginseng and related plants. Vienna: Springer Vienna; 1984. p. 1-76.
Jeong HS, Lim CS, Cha BC, Choi SH, Kwon KR. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and wild ginseng and the change of ginsenoside components in the process of red ginseng. J Pharmacopuncture. 2010;13(1):63-77.
Han YJ, Kwon KR, Cha BC, Kwon OM. [Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng by structural parts using HPLC method]. J Pharmacopuncture. 2007;10(1):37-53. Korean.
Korean pharmacopuncture institute. [Pharmacopuncture]. Seoul: Elsevier Korea LLC; 2012. p. 10. Korean.
Dasgupta A, Wu S, Actor J, Olsen M, Wells A, Datta P. Effect of Asian and Siberian ginseng on serum digoxin measurement by five digoxin immunoassays. Significant variation in digoxin-like immunoreactivity among commercial ginsengs. Am J Clin Pathol. 2003;119(2):298-303.
Sung WS, Lee DG. In vitro candidacidal action of Korean red ginseng saponins against Candida albicans. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31(1):139-42.
Lee B, Yang CH, Hahm DH, Lee HJ, Han SM, Kim KS, et al. Inhibitory effects of ginseng total saponins on behavioral sensitization and dopamine release induced by cocaine. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31(3):436-41.
Wang W, Rayburn ER, Hao M, Zhao Y, Hill DL, Zhang R, et al. Experiment therapy of prostate cancer with novel natural product anti-cancer ginsenosides. Prostate. 2008;68(8):809-19.
Fiona M, Denise T. A-Z of complementary and alternative medicine. a guide for health professionals. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2009. p. 137-8.