Ethanol Extract of Oldenlandia diffusa - an Effective Chemotherapeutic for the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer in Humans -Anti-Cancer Effects of Oldenlandia diffusa- Lee, Soojin; Shim, Ji Hwan; Gim, Huijin; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Byung Joo;
Objectives: Oldenlandia diffusa is traditionally used to relieve the symptoms of and to treat various diseases, but its anti-cancer activity has not been well studied. In the present study, the authors investigated the anti-cancer effects of an ethanol extract of Oldenlandia diffusa (EOD) on HT-29 human adenocarcinoma cells. Methods: Cells were treated with different concentrations of an EOD, and cell death was assessed by using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Analyses of the sub G1 peak, the caspase-3 and -9 activities, and the mitochondrial membrane depolarizations were conducted to confirm cell death by apoptosis. Also, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined using carboxy-H2DCFDA (5-(and-6)-carboxy-20,70-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate). Results: EOD inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells for 24 hours by at , at , at , at , and by at , and treatment for 72 hours reduced the proliferation at the corresponding concentrations by , , , , and by . EOD increased the number of cells in the sub-G1 peak in a dose-dependent manner. The mitochondrial membrane depolarization was elevated by EOD. Also, caspase activities were dose-dependently elevated in the presence of EOD, and these activities were repressed by a pan-caspase inhibitor (zVAD-fmk). The ROS generation was significantly increased by EOD and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC; a ROS scavenger) remarkably abolished EOD-induced cell death. In addition, a combination of sub-optimal doses of EOD and chemotherapeutic agents noticeably suppressed the growth of HT-29 cancer cells. Conclusion: These results indicate that EOD might be an effective chemotherapeutic for the treatment of human colorectal cancer.
anti-cancer activity;HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells;Oldenlandia diffusa;
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