JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Taxonomic Redescription of Loxophyllum perihoplophorum and L. rostratum (Ciliophora: Pleurostomatida) from Korea
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Taxonomic Redescription of Loxophyllum perihoplophorum and L. rostratum (Ciliophora: Pleurostomatida) from Korea
Kim, Se-Joo; Min, Gi-Sik;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Two pleurostomatid ciliates, Loxophyllum perihoplophorum Buddenbrock, 1920 and L. rostratum Cohn, 1866, were collected from the coastal waters of the East Sea, Korea. Their morphologies are described based on live observation and protargol staining, and morphometrics are provided. Loxophyllum perihoplophorum is characterized by the following features: 200-650 μm long in vivo; body slender leaf-shaped, flexible and contractile, with thin and wide extrusome-belted zone; 2 macronuclear nodules (Ma) and 1 micronucleus (Mi); 7-9 contractile vacuoles (CV) positioned along dorsal margin; extrusomes (Ex) evenly distributed along edge of entire body, with about 10 dorsal warts (Wa); 9-11 left (LSK) and 19-22 right somatic kineties (RSK), 4-5 furrows (Fu) on left side. Loxophyllum rostratum is about 100-130 μm long in vivo; body oblate leaf-shaped, contractile, convex ventral side and S-shaped dorsal side, beak-like anterior end; 2 Ma and 1 Mi; 1 CV terminally located; Ex distributed along edge of entire body, with about 9-10 dorsal Wa; 7-8 LSK and 15-19 RSK, ca. 5 Fu on left body side. In addition, sequences of small subunit ribosomal DNA were determined from these two Loxophyllum species and compared with the known Loxophyllum sequences.
 Keywords
Haptoria;Pleurostomatida;Litonotidae;Loxophyllum perihoplophorum;Loxophyllum rostratum;East Sea;Korea;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Buddenbrock W, 1920. Beobachtungen über einige neue oder wenig bekannte marine Infusorien. Archiv fur Protistenkunde, 41:341-364 (in German).

2.
Cohn F, 1866. Neue Infusorien im Seeaquarium. Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 16:280-282 (in German).

3.
Corliss JO, 1979. The Ciliated Protozoa: characterization, classification, and guide to the literature. Pergaman Press, New York, pp. 1-455.

4.
Fenchel T, 1987. Ecology of protozoa: the biology of free-living phagotrophic protists. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 102-161.

5.
Foissner W, 1984. Taxonomie und Ökologie einiger Ciliaten (Protozoa, Ciliophora) des Saprobiensystems. I: Genera Litonotus, Amphileptus, Opisthodon. Hydrobiologia, 119:193-208 (in German). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00015210 crossref(new window)

6.
Foissner W, 1991. Basic light and scanning electron microscopic methods for taxonomic studies of ciliated protozoa. European Journal of Protistology, 27:313-330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0932-4739(11)80248-8 crossref(new window)

7.
Gong J, Choi JK, Roberts DM, Kim SY, Min GS, 2007. Morphological descriptions of new and little-known benthic ciliates from Ganghwa tidal flat, Korea. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 54:306-316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1550-7408.2007.00268.x crossref(new window)

8.
Hall TA, 1999. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series, 41:95-98.

9.
Kahl A, 1931. Urtiere oder Protozoa I: Wimpertiere oder Ciliata (Infusoria) 2. Holotricha. Tierwelt Deutschlands, 21:181-398 (in German).

10.
Kim SJ, Min GS, 2009. Optimization of DNA extraction from a single living ciliate for stable and repetitive PCR amplification. Animal Cells and Systems, 13:351-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19768354.2009.9647229 crossref(new window)

11.
Lee JM, Yoon J, Shin MK, 2006. Two litonotid ciliates (Ciliophora: Litostomatea: Pleurostomatida) unknown from Korea. Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology, 22:223-229.

12.
Lin X, Al-Rasheid K, Al-Quraishy S, Al-Farraj SA, Song W, 2008. Identification of three highly confused marine Loxophyllum (Ciliophora: Pleurostomatida) with a key to seven congeners from the China Sea. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 55:331-342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00332.x crossref(new window)

13.
Lin X, Song W, Wilbert N, Warren A, 2005. Two new marine pleurostomatid ciliates from China, Loxophyllum jini and L. qiuianum (Ciliophora: Pleurostomatida). Acta Protozoologica, 44:147-157.

14.
Lipscomb DL, Riordan GP, 1990. The ultrastructure of Chaenea teres and an analysis of the phylogeny of the haptorid ciliates. The Journal of Protozoology, 37:287-300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1550-7408.1990.tb01149.x crossref(new window)

15.
Lynn DH, 2008. The ciliated protozoa: characterization, classification, and guide to the literature. Springer, New York, pp. 1-605.

16.
Lynn DH, Small EB, 2002. Phylum Ciliophora Doflein, 1901. In: An illustrated guide to the protozoa (Eds., Lee JJ, Leedale GF, Bradbury P). Society of Protozoologists, Lawrence, KS, pp. 371-656.

17.
Pan H, Gao F, Li J, Lin X, Al-Farraj SA, Al-Rasheid KAS, 2010. Morphology and phylogeny of two new pleurostomatid ciliates, Epiphyllum shenzhenense n. sp. and Loxophyllum spirellum n. sp. (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from a mangrove wetland, South China. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 57:421-428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1550-7408.2010.00492.x crossref(new window)

18.
Pan H, Gao F, Lin X, Warren A, Song W, 2013. Three new Loxophyllum species (Ciliophora: Pleurostomatida) from China with a brief review of the marine and brackish Loxophyllum species. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 60:44-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jeu.12005 crossref(new window)

19.
Petz W, Song W, Wilbert N, 1995. Taxonomy and ecology of the ciliate fauna (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in the endopagial and pelagial of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Stapfia, 40:1-223.

20.
Song W, 1993. Studies on the morphology and systematic status of Loxophyllum rostratum Cohn, 1866 (Ciliophora, Pleurostomatida). Journal of Oceanography of Huanghai and Bohai Seas, 11:44-49 (in Chinese with English summary).

21.
Song W, Warren A, Hu X, 2009. Free-living ciliates in the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China. Science Press, Beijing, pp. 1-518.

22.
Strüder-Kypke MC, Wright ADG, Foissner W, Chatzinotas A, Lynn DH, 2006. Molecular phylogeny of litostome ciliates (Ciliophora, Litostomatea) with emphasis on free-living haptorian genera. Protist, 157:261-278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.protis.2006.03.003 crossref(new window)

23.
Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S, 2013. MEGA6: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30:2725-2729. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst197 crossref(new window)

24.
Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG, 1997. The Clustal X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Research, 24:4876-4882.

25.
Vdacný P, Rajter LU, Shazib SUA, Jang SW, Kim JH, Shin MK, 2015. Reconstruction of evolutionary history of pleurostomatid ciliates (Ciliophora, Litostomatea, Haptoria): interplay of morphology and molecules. Acta Protozoologica, 54:9. http://dx.doi.org/10.4467/16890027AP.15.002.2189 crossref(new window)

26.
Warren A, 2015. Loxophyllum. In: World Ciliophora Database (Ed., Warren A) [Internet]. World Register of Marine Species, Accessed 8 Jul 2015, .

27.
Wu L, Chen R, Yi Z, Li J, Warren A, Lin X, 2014. The morphology of three Loxophyllum species (Ciliophora, Pleurostomatida) from Southern China, L. lembum sp. n., L. vesiculosum sp. n. and L. perihoplophorum Buddenbrock, 1920, with notes on the molecular phylogeny of Loxophyllum. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 61:115-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jeu.12089 crossref(new window)

28.
Wu L, Clamp JC, Yi Z, Li J, Lin X, 2015. Phylogenetic and taxonomic revision of an enigmatic group of Haptorian ciliates, with establishment of the Kentrophyllidae fam. n. (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Litostomatea, Pleurostomatida). PLoS ONE, 10:e0123720. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123720 crossref(new window)

29.
Xu H, Min GS, Choi JK, Kim SJ, Jung JH, Lim BJ, 2009. An approach to analyses of periphytic ciliate communities for monitoring water quality using a modified artificial substrate in Korean coastal waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 89:669-679. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315409000204 crossref(new window)