JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
New Records of Cold-Water Corals from Korea
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
New Records of Cold-Water Corals from Korea
Song, Jun-Im;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Two cold-water coral taxa, Octocorallia in the class Anthozoa and Stylasteridae in the class Hydrozoa, were identified. Deep-water samples were collected in fishing nets at depths ranging between 20 and 200 m along the coasts of the East Sea in Korea from 1976 to 1993. The two species found in this study represent new records for Korea: Paragorgia arborea (Linnaeus, 1758) in the class Anthozoa, and Stylaster profundiporus Broch, 1936 in the class Hydrozoa. Two families, Paragorgiidae and Stylasteridae, are also newly recorded in Korea. Furthermore, the species name of another cold-water gorgonian species, Primnoa pacifica (Kinoshita, 1907) in the family Primnoidae, is amended in this report. The two newly recorded cold-water coral species from Korea are described in detail based on their morphological characteristics. Paragorgia arborea is characterized by its growth form, medulla and cortex, zooid dimorphism, canal system, and spicule composition. Stylaster profundiporus is distinguished by its external skeletal characteristics, such as the coordination of dactylopores and gastropores, presence or absence of gastrostyles and dactylostyles, cyclosystem orientation, ampullar position, gastropore tube shape, and coenosteal texture.
 Keywords
deep-sea corals;Paragorgiidae;Primnoidae;Stylasteridae;Korea;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Aurivillius M, 1931. The gorgonarians from Dr. Sixteen Bock’s Expedition to Japan and Bonin Islands, 1914. Kungliska Svenska Vetenskaps Akademiens Handlingar, 3rd Series, 9:1-337.

2.
Bayer FM, 1956a. Descriptions and redescriptions of the Hawaiian octocorals collected by the U. S. Fish Commission steamer “Albatross” (2. Gorgonacea: Scleraxonia). Pacific Science, 10:67-95.

3.
Bayer FM, 1956b. Octocorallia. In: Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part F. Coelenterata (Ed., Moore RC). University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, KS, pp. F166-F231.

4.
Boschma H, 1953. The Stylasterina of the Pacific. Zoologische Mededelingen, 32:165-184.

5.
Boschma H, 1957. List of the described species of the order Stylasterina. Zoologische Verhandelingen, Leiden, 33:1-72.

6.
Broch H, 1936. Untersuchungen an Stylasteriden (Hydrokorallen). Teil 1. Skrifter utgitt av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi I Oslo. 1. Mat-Naturv Klasse, 8:1-103.

7.
Broch H, 1942. Investigations on Stylasteridae (Hydrocorals). Skrifter utgitt av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi 1 Oslo. I. Mat-Naturv Klasse, 3:1-113.

8.
Cairns SD, 1983. A generic revision of the Stylasterina (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa). Part 1. Description of the genera. Bulletin of Marine Science, 33:427-508.

9.
Cairns SD, 1992. A generic revision of the Stylasteridae (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa). Part 3. Keys to the genera. Bulletin of Marine Science, 49:538-545.

10.
Cairns SD, 2010. Stylaster Gray, 1831. In: World Hydrozoa database (2016) (Ed., Schuchert P) [Internet]. World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS), Accessed 11 May 2016, .

11.
Cairns SD, 2011a. Global diversity of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Athecatae). PLoS ONE, 6:e21670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021670 crossref(new window)

12.
Cairns SD, 2011b. A revision of the Primnoidae (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 634:1-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.634 crossref(new window)

13.
Cairns SD, Bayer FM, 2005. A review of the genus Primnoa (Octocorallia: Gorgonacea: Primnoidae), with the description of two new species. Bulletin of Marine Science, 77: 225-256.

14.
Daly M, Brugler MR, Cartwright P, Collins AG, Dawson MN, Fautin DG, France SC, McFadden CS, Opresko DM, Rodriguez E, Romano SL, Stake JL, 2007. The phylum Cnidaria: a review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa, 1668:127-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.15468/99r4zo crossref(new window)

15.
Dunn DF, 1982. Cnidaria. In: Synopsis and classification of living organisms (Ed., Parker SP). Vol. 1. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, pp. 669-706.

16.
Eguchi M, 1941. Stylasterinae from Japanese Seas. Jubilee Publ. Commem. Prof. H. Yabe. M.I.A. 60th Birthday, Vol. 2, pp. 1171-1194 (in Japanese).

17.
Eguchi M, 1965. Stylasterina. In: New illustrated encyclopedia of the fauna of Japan (Eds., Okada K, Uchida S, Uchida T). Vol. 1. Hokuryu-kan, Tokyo, pp. 216-219 (in Japanese).

18.
Eguchi M, 1968. The hydrocorals and scleractinian corals of Sagami Bay. Maruzen Co., Ltd., Tokyo, pp. 1-53.

19.
Fabricius K, Alderslade P, 2001. Soft corals and sea fans. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, pp. 1-264.

20.
Freiwald A, Fosså JH, Grehan A, Koslow T, Roberts JM, 2004. Cold-water coral reefs. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, pp. 1-83.

21.
Goud J, Hoeksema BW, 2001. Pedicularia vanderlandi spec. nov., a symbiotic snail (Caenogastropoda: Ovulidae) on the hydrocoral Distichopora vervoorti Cairns and Hoeksema, 1998 (Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae), from Bali, Indonesia. Zoologische Verhandelingen, Leiden, 334:77-97.

22.
Heikoop JM, Hickmott DD, Risk MJ, Shearer CK, Atudorei V, 2002. Potential climate signals from the deep-sea gorgonian coal Primnoa resedaeformis. Hydrobiologia, 471:117-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1016505421115 crossref(new window)

23.
Imahara Y, 1996. Previously recorded octocorals from Japan and adjacent seas. Precious Corals and Octocoral Research, 4-5:17-44.

24.
Imahara Y, Iwase F, Namikawa H, 2014. The octocorals of Sagami Bay. Tokai University Press, Kanagawa, pp. 1-398.

25.
Kinoshita K, 1907. Vorlaufige Mittelilung uber einige neue Japanische Primnoid - Korallen. Annotationes Zoologiscae Japonenses, 6:229-234.

26.
Kinoshita K, 1908. Primnoidae von Japan. Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, 23:1-74.

27.
Kinoshita K, 1909. On the gorgonid family Primnoidae. Zoological Magazine (Tokyo), 21:1-10 (in Japanese).

28.
Kinoshita K, 1913. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Morphologie und Stammesgeschichte der Gorgoniden. Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, 32:1-50.

29.
Kükenthal W, 1919. Gorgonaria. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition auf dem Dampfer "Valdivia", 1898-1899, 13:1-646.

30.
Kükenthal W, 1924. Gorgonaria. Das Tierrich, Vol. 47. Walter de Gruyter and Company, Berlin und Leipzig, pp. 1-446.

31.
Linnaeus C, 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiae, Laurentii Salvii, pp. 1-824 (cited from Daly et al., 2005).

32.
Matsumoto AK, 2007. Effects of low water temperature on growth and magnesium carbonate concentrations in the cold-water gorgonian Primnoa pacifica. Bulletin of Marine Science, 81:423-435.

33.
Matsumoto AK, Iwase F, Imahara Y, Namikawa H, 2007. Bathymetric distribution and biodiversity of cold-water octocorals (Coelenterata: Octocorallia) in Sagami Bay and adjacent waters of Japan. Conservation and adaptive management of seamount and deep-sea coral ecosystems. Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. University of Miami, Miami, FL, pp. 231-251.

34.
Mortensen PB, Buhl-Mortensen L, 2005. Morphology and growth of the deep-water gorgonians Primnoa resedaeformis and Paragorgia arborea. Marine Biology, 147:775-788. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-005-1604-y crossref(new window)

35.
Neubert E, 1998. Six new species of marine gastropods from the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. Fauna of Arabia, 17:463-472.

36.
Nutting CC, 1912. Description of the Alcyonaria collected by the U. S. Fish. Comm. Steamer “Albatross”, mainly in Japanese waters, during 1906. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 43:1-104. crossref(new window)

37.
Risk MJ, Heikoop JM, Snow MG, Beukens R, 2002. Lifespans and growth patterns of two deep-sea corals: Primnoa resedaeformis and Desmophyllum cristagalli. Hydrobiologia, 471:125-131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1016557405185 crossref(new window)

38.
Roberts JM, Wheeler A, Freiwald A, Cairns S, 2009. Cold-water corals, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1-334.

39.
Sánchez JA, 2005. Systematics of the bubblegum corals (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Paragorgiidae) with description of new species from New Zealand and the Eastern Pacific. Zootaxa, 1014:1-72. crossref(new window)

40.
Song JI, 1981. A systematic study on Octocorallia in Korea. 6. Holaxonia (Gorgonacea). Korean Journal of Zoology, 24: 99-115.

41.
Song JI, 2004. Illustrated encyclopedia of fauna and flora of Korea. Vol. 39. Anthozoa. Ministry of Education and Human Resources, Seoul, pp. 1-643.

42.
Stiasny G, 1937. Die Gorgonacea der Siboga-Expedition. Revision der Scleraxonia mit Ausschluss der Melitodidae und Coalliidae. Siboga-Expeditie Monographie XIIIb8, Leiden, Supplement II, 13:1-138.

43.
Utinomi H, 1958. Studies on the cirripedian fauna of Japan. VII. Cirripeds from Sagami Bay. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 6:281-311. crossref(new window)

44.
Utinomi H, 1965. Octocorallia. In: New illustrated encyclopedia of the fauna of Japan (Eds., Okada K, Uchida S, Uchida T). Vol. 1. Hokuryukan, Tokyo, pp. 240-254.

45.
van Ofwegen L, 2010a. Paragorgia Milne Edwards, 1857 [Internet]. World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS), Accessed 11 May 2016, .

46.
van Ofwegen L, 2010b. Primnoa Lamouroux, 1812 [Internet]. World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS), Accessed 11 May 2016, .

47.
Verrill AE, 1922. Part G: Alcyonaria and Actiniaria. Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedition 1913-18, 8:1-164 (cited from Sánchez, 2005).

48.
Verseveldt J, 1940. Studies on Octocorallia of the families Briareidae, Paragorgiidae and Anthothelidae. Temminckia, Leiden, 5:1-142.

49.
Verseveldt J, 1942. Further studies on Octocorallia. Zoologische Mededelingen, Leiden, 24:159-186.

50.
Versluys J, 1906. Die Gorgoniden der Siboga-Expedition, II Die Primnoidae. Siboga-Expeditie, 13a:1-187.

51.
Vervoort W, Zibrowius H, 1981. Annotations on H. Boschma’s work on hydrocorals (Milleporina, Axoporina, Stylasterina), with additions to his list of the described species of Stylasterina. Zoologische Verhandelingen, Leiden, 181:1-40.

52.
Wright EP, Studer T, 1889. Report on the Alcyonaria collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the Years 1873-76, Zoology, 31:1-314.