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Associations of Low Environmental Exposure to Multiple Metals with Renal Tubular Impairment in Korean Adults
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  • Journal title : Toxicological Research
  • Volume 32, Issue 1,  2016, pp.57-64
  • Publisher : The Korean Society of Toxicology
  • DOI : 10.5487/TR.2016.32.1.057
 Title & Authors
Associations of Low Environmental Exposure to Multiple Metals with Renal Tubular Impairment in Korean Adults
Lim, Hyungryul; Lim, Ji-ae; Choi, Jong Hyuk; Kwon, Ho-jang; Ha, Mina; Kim, Heon; Park, Jung-duck;
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Recently several studies reported that the renal toxicity of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) may exist in even a low level exposure. In terms of the deterioration of tubular function, it affects the loss of divalent metals and leads to other complications, so renal tubular effect of heavy metals should be well managed. Considering the exposure to heavy metals in reality, it is hard to find the case that human is exposed to only one heavy metal. We designed a cross-sectional study using Korean Research Project on the Integrated Exposure Assessment (KRIEFS) data to investigate the renal effects of multiple metal exposure in general population. We used blood Pb and urinary Cd as exposure measures, and urinary N-acetyl--D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and -microglobulin (-MG) as renal tubular impairment outcome. We conducted linear regression to identify the association between each heavy metal and urinary NAG and -MG. And then, we conducted linear regression including the interaction term. Of 1953 adults in KRIEFS (2010~2011), the geometric mean of blood Pb and urinary Cd concentration was (geometric ) and (geometric ), respectively. In urinary Cd, the strength of the association was also high after adjusting (urinary NAG: , p < 0.001; urinary -MG: , p = 0.002). Finally, we identified the positive interactions for the two renal biomarkers. The interaction effect of the two heavy metals of -MG was greater than that of NAG. It is very important in public health perspective if the low level exposure to multiple heavy metals has an interaction effect on kidney. More epidemiological studies for the interaction and toxicological studies on the mechanism are needed.
Lead;Cadmium;Interaction;NAG;-MG;Renal tubular impairment;
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