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A Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Aflatoxin-producing Fungus Using an Optimized Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
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  • Journal title : Toxicological Research
  • Volume 32, Issue 1,  2016, pp.81-87
  • Publisher : The Korean Society of Toxicology
  • DOI : 10.5487/TR.2016.32.1.081
 Title & Authors
A Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Aflatoxin-producing Fungus Using an Optimized Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
Bintvihok, Anong; Treebonmuang, Supitchaya; Srisakwattana, Kitiya; Nuanchun, Wisut; Patthanachai, Koranis; Usawang, Sungworn;
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Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is produced by Aspergillus flavus growing in feedstuffs. Early detection of maize contamination by aflatoxigenic fungi is advantageous since aflatoxins exert adverse health effects. In this study, we report the development of an optimized conventional PCR for AFB1 detection and a rapid, sensitive and simple screening Real-time PCR (qPCR) with SYBR Green and two pairs of primers targeting the aflR genes which involved aflatoxin biosynthesis. AFB1 contaminated maize samples were divided into three groups by the toxin concentration. Genomic DNA was extracted from those samples. The target genes for A. flavus were tested by conventional PCR and the PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis. A conventional PCR was carried out as nested PCR to verify the gene amplicon sizes. PCR-RFLP patterns, obtained with Hinc II and Pvu II enzyme analysis showed the differences to distinguish aflatoxin-producing fungi. However, they are not quantitative and need a separation of the products on gel and their visualization under UV light. On the other hand, qPCR facilitates the monitoring of the reaction as it progresses. It does not require post-PCR handling, which reduces the risk of cross-contamination and handling errors. It results in a much faster throughout. We found that the optimal primer annealing temperature was . The optimized template and primer concentration were and respectively. SYBR Green qPCR of four genes demonstrated amplification curves and melting peaks for tub1, afIM, afIR, and afID genes are at , , , and respectively. Consequently, it was found that the four primers had elevated annealing temperatures, nevertheless it is desirable since it enhances the DNA binding specificity of the dye. New qPCR protocol could be employed for the determination of aflatoxin content in feedstuff samples.
Polymerase chain reaction;Aflatoxin-producing fungus;Nested PCR;PCR-RFLP;SYBR Green real-time PCR;
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