JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Oral Toxicity Study and Skin Sensitization Test of a Cricket
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Toxicological Research
  • Volume 32, Issue 2,  2016, pp.159-173
  • Publisher : The Korean Society of Toxicology
  • DOI : 10.5487/TR.2016.32.2.159
 Title & Authors
Oral Toxicity Study and Skin Sensitization Test of a Cricket
Ryu, Hyeon Yeol; Lee, Somin; Ahn, Kyu Sup; Kim, Hye Jin; Lee, Sang Sik; Ko, Hyuk Ju; Lee, Jin Kyu; Cho, Myung-Haing; Ahn, Mi Young; Kim, Eun Mi; Lim, Jeong Ho; Song, Kyung Seuk;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Crickets have been attracting considerable interest in the field of nutrition and toxicology due to the global exhaustion of food resulting from a growing population. The cricket is normally eaten in several countries after roasting, similar to the grasshopper; however, safety evaluation data on cricket powder is limited. Here, we performed general toxicity studies of cricket powder including a single, 2-week repeated dose range evaluation test, a 13-week repeated oral dose toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats, a single oral dose toxicity test in Beagle dogs, and a skin sensitization test in guinea pigs following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guidelines 406 and 408 in addition to Good Laboratory Practice. To investigate the NOAEL and target organs of cricket powder, Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 4 groups: vehicle control, 1,250 mg/kg, 2,500 mg/kg, 5,000 mg/kg dose test groups and cricket powder was administered over 13 weeks after single dose and dose range finding studies in rats based on the results of the single oral administration toxicity study in rats and Beagle dogs. The results of the study showed that the NOAEL of cricket powder was over 5,000 mg/kg for both sexes of rats without adverse effects in a 13-week repeated oral toxicity study and there was no skin hypersensitivity reaction. Therefore, our results reveal that crickets can be widely used as a new substitute food or nutrient resource.
 Keywords
Cricket;Gryllus bimaculatus;Oral dose toxicity;Skin sensitization;NOAEL;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Ahn, M.Y., Lee, Y.W., Ryu, K.S., Lee, H.S., Kim, I.S., Kim, J.W. and Lim, S.S. (2004) Effects of water and methanol extracts of cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) on alcohol metabolism. Korean J. Pharmacogn., 35, 175-178.

2.
Ahn, M.Y., Hwang, J.S. and Yun, E.Y. (2015) Gene expression profiling of glycosaminoglycan drived from G. bimaculatus in high fat dieted rat. FASEB J., 29, LB152. crossref(new window)

3.
Ahn, M.Y., Han, J.W., Hwang, J.S., Yun, E.Y. and Lee, B.M. (2014) Anti-inflammatory effect of glycosaminoglycan derived from Gryllus bimaculatus (a type of cricket, insect) on adjuvant-treated chronic arthritis rat model. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A, 77, 1332-1345. crossref(new window)

4.
Kim, I.S., Ahn, M.Y., Ryu, K.S. and Lee, B.M. (2002) Acute oral toxicity of G. bimaculatus in rats. J. Toxicol. Pub. Health, 18, 397-400.

5.
OECD (1992) Test No. 406: Skin sensitisation in OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 4. Available from: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/test-no-406-skinsensitisation_9789264070660-en (Accessed Dec. 27, 2012).

6.
OECD (1998) Test No. 408: Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents in OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 4. Available from: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/test-no-408-repeated-dose-90-day-oraltoxicity-study-in-rodents_9789264070707-en (Accessed Dec. 27, 2012).

7.
Basketter, D.A. and Gerberick, G.F. (1996) An interlaboratory evaluation of the Buehler test for the identification and classification of skin sensitizers. Contact Derm., 35, 146-151. crossref(new window)

8.
Ramos-Elorduy, J. (2002) Edible insects of chiapas, Mexico. Ecol. Food Nutr., 41, 271-299. crossref(new window)

9.
Hanboonsong, Y., Jamjanya, T. and Durst, P.B. (2013) Sixlegged livestock: edible insect farming, collection and marketing in Thailand, FAO, Bangkok, p. 5.

10.
Rumpold, B.A. and Schluter, O.K. (2013) Nutritional composition and safety aspects of edible insects. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 57, 802-823. crossref(new window)

11.
van Huis, A. (2013) Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 58, 563-583. crossref(new window)

12.
Wang, D., Bai, Y.Y., Li, J.H. and Zhang, C.X. (2004) Nutritional value of the field cricket (Gryllus testaceus Walker). Insect Sci., 11, 275-283. crossref(new window)

13.
Oonincx, D.G., van Itterbeeck, J., Heetkamp, M.J., van den Brand, H., van Loon, J.J. and van Huis, A. (2010) An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption. PLoS One, 5, e14445.. crossref(new window)

14.
Steinfeld, H., Gerber, P., Wassenaar, T., Castel, V., Rosales, M. and Haan, C.D. (2006) Livestock's long shadow: environmental issues and options, FAO, Rome, pp. 82-83, 151-152.

15.
Kinyuru, J.N., Mogendi, J.B., Riwa, C.A. and Ndung'u, N.W. (2015) Edible insects-a novel source of essential nutrients for human diet: Learning from traditional knowledge. Animal Frontiers, 5, 14-19.

16.
Michaelsen, K.F., Hoppe, C., Roos, N., Kaestel, P., Stougaard, M., Lauritzen, L., Molgaard, C., Girma, T. and Friis, H. (2009) Choice of foods and ingredients for moderately malnourished children 6 months to 5 years of age. Food Nutr. Bull., 30, S343-S404. crossref(new window)

17.
Huis, V.A., Itterbeeck, V.J., Klunder, H., Mertens, E., Halloran, A., Muir, G. and Vantomme, P. (2013) Edible insects: future prospects for food and feed security, FAO, Rome, pp. 67-68.

18.
McLean, E., Cogswell, M., Egli, I., Wojdyla, D. and Benoist, B. (2009) Worldwide prevalence of anaemia, WHO vitamin and mineral nutrition information system, 1993-2005. Public Health Nutr., 12, 444-454. crossref(new window)

19.
Pasricha, S.R., Drakesmith, H., Black, J., Hipgrave, D. and Biggs, B.A. (2013) Control of iron deficiency anemia in lowand middle-income countries. Blood, 121, 2607-2617. crossref(new window)

20.
Kassebaum, N.J., Jasrasaria, R., Naghavi, M., Wulf, S.K., Johns, N., Lozano, R., Regan, M., Weatherall, D., Chou, D.P., Eisele, T.P., Flaxman, S.R., Pullan, R.L., Brooker, S.J. and Murray, C.J. (2014) A systematic analysis of global anemia burden from 1990 to 2010. Blood, 123, 615-624. crossref(new window)

21.
Yamada, T., Alpers, D.H., Kalloo, A.N., Kaplowitz, N., Owyang, C. and Powell, D.W. (2009) Textbook of gastroenterology (5th edition), Wiley-blackwell pub, Chichester, pp. 17-18.

22.
Kumar, P. and Clark, M.L. (2012) Kumar & Clark's clinical medicine (8th edition), Elsevier Saunders, Edinburgh, pp. 587-588.

23.
Lassi, Z.S., Haider, B.A. and Bhutta, Z.A. (2010) Zinc supplementation for the prevention of pneumonia in children aged 2 months to 59 months. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., (12), CD005978.

24.
Suzuki, H., Asakawa, A., Li, J.B., Tsai, M., Amitani, H., Ohinata, K., Komai, M. and Inui, A. (2011) Zinc as an appetite stimulator-the possible role of zinc in the progression of diseases such as cachexia and sarcopenia. Recent Pat. Food Nutr. Agric., 3, 226-231. crossref(new window)

25.
Swardfager, W., Herrmann, N., Mazereeuw, G., Goldberger, K., Harimoto, T. and Lanctot, K.L. (2013) Zinc in depression: a meta-analysis. Biol. Psychiatry, 74, 872-878. crossref(new window)

26.
Muller, O. and Krawinkel, M. (2005) Malnutrition and health in developing countries. CMAJ, 173, 279-286. crossref(new window)

27.
World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (1994) Fats and oils in human nutrition: report of a joint expert consultation. FAO and WHO Expert Consultation, Rome, Available from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/V4700E/V4700E00.htm (Accessed Sep. 12, 2012).