JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Relationship Between Internet Addiction and Circadian Rhythm in Adults
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Relationship Between Internet Addiction and Circadian Rhythm in Adults
Kang, Do Won; Soh, Minah; Lee, Tae Kyeong;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Background and Objectives: Internet addiction is an increasing problem in Korea. The previous studies in this area have targeted adolescents and young adults. This study was conducted to examine the risk of internet addiction in Korean adults and the effect of internet addiction on circadian rhythm. Materials and Methods: For this study, 508 subjects were chosen through population proportional sampling to represent the adult population in Korea, 325 of whom were included based on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Korea (Audit-K), Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), drug use in the past year, and suicide attempts. In these subjects, sociodemographic factors including age, gender, and residential area were analyzed, and Young's Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), and an online survey examining sleep onset time on weekdays and weekends, wake-up time, and caffeinated drink intake were executed. Results: Of the 325 subjects, 136 (41.8%) belonged to a high-risk internet addiction group (), and 189 (58.2%) belonged to a normal group (IAS < 40). There was a high proportion of male subjects (p = 0.03) in the high-risk group compared to the normal group. There was a high proportion of younger subjects (p = 0.055) in the high-risk group compared to the normal group, but this difference was not statistically significant. Compared to the normal group, there was a high proportion of the evening type () in the high-risk group (p = 0.024), who also showed a high proportion of caffeinated drink intake (p < 0.001). Also, the high-risk group was found to go to bed and wake up late, but there was no statistically significant difference with the normal group. Conclusion: This study showed that many adults have a high-risk of internet addiction, and there was a significant correlation between internet addiction and sleep in adult, as has been found in adolescents and early adults. In the future, a longitudinal study will be needed to verify the causal relationship between internet addiction and morningness-eveningness.
 Keywords
Internet addiction;Adult;Circadian rhythm;Sleep;
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
 References
1.
Carrier J, Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Kupfer DJ. Sleep and morningness- eveningness in the 'middle' years of life (20-59y). J Sleep Res 1997;6:230-237. crossref(new window)

2.
Chakraborty K, Basu D, Kumar K. Internet addiction: Consensus, controversies, and the way ahead. East Asian Arch Psychiatry 2010;20:123-132.

3.
Cheung LM, Wong WS. The effects of insomnia and internet addiction on depression in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents: an exploratory cross-sectional analysis. J Sleep Res 2010;20:311-317.

4.
Davis RA. A cognitive behavioral model of pathological internet use (PIU). Comput Human Behav 2001;17:187-195. crossref(new window)

5.
Dowling NA, Quirk KL. Screening for Internet dependence: do the proposed diagnostic criteria differentiate normal from dependent internet use? Cyberpsychol Behav 2009;12:21-27. crossref(new window)

6.
Goldberg I. Internet Addiction Disorder. Retrieved November 1996. Available from: www.aeps.ulpgc.es/JR/Documentos/ciberadictos. doc

7.
Gradisar M, Wolfson AR, Harvey AG, Hale L, Rosenberg R, Czeisler CA. The sleep and technology use of Americans: findings from the National Sleep Foundation's 2011 Sleep in America poll. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;15:1291-1299.

8.
Gyeong H, Lee HK, Lee K. Factor analysis of the Young's internet addiction test: in Korean college students group. J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc 2012;51:45-51. crossref(new window)

9.
Ha JH, Cheon M. Clinical characteristics of internet addiction. J Korean Academy of Addiction Psychiatry 2012;16:3-10.

10.
Hamblin DL, Wood AW. Effects of mobile phone emissions on human brain activity and sleep variables. International Journal of Radiation Biology 2002;78:659-669. crossref(new window)

11.
Horne JA, Ostberg O. A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms. Int J Chronobiol 1976;4:97-110.

12.
Kang SH, Yoo HK, Chung S, Kim CY. Eveningness, sleep patterns, daytime sleepiness and fatigue in Korean male adolescents. Sleep Med Psychophysiol 2012;19:89-96.

13.
Ko CH, Yen JY, Yen CF, Chen CS, Chen CC. The association between Internet addiction and psychiatric disorder: a review of the literature. Eur Psychiatry 2012;27:1-8.

14.
Lee JS, Kim SG, Kim JH, Jung WY, Park JH. Melatonin in psychiatric disorders. Sleep Med Psychophysiol 2015; 22:5-10. crossref(new window)

15.
Nalwa K, Anand AP. Internet addiction in students: a cause of concern. Cyberpsychol Behav 2003;6:653-656. crossref(new window)

16.
Park YM, Matsumoto K, Seo YJ, Shinkoda H, Park KP. Sleep in relation to age, sex, and chronotype in Japanese workers. Percept Mot Skills 1998;87:199-215. crossref(new window)

17.
Punamaki RL, Wallenius M, Nygard CH, Saarni L, Rimpela A. Use of information and communication technology (ICT) and perceived health in adolescence: The role of sleeping habits and waking-time tiredness. J Adolesc 2007;30:569-585. crossref(new window)

18.
Roehrs T, Roth T. Caffeine: sleep and daytime sleepiness. Sleep Med Rev 2008;12:153-162. crossref(new window)

19.
Roepke SE, Duffy JF. Differential impact of chronotype on weekday and weekend sleep timing and duration. Nat Sci Sleep 2010; 2:213-220.

20.
Sinkkonen HM, Puhakka H, Merilainen M. Internet use and addiction among Finnish adolescents (15-19 years). J Adolesc 2014;37: 123-131. crossref(new window)

21.
Song HK, Jeong MH, Sung DJ, Jung JK, Choi JS, Jang YL, et al. Internet addiction in adolescents and its relation to sleep and depression. Sleep Med Psychophysiol 2010;17:100-108.

22.
Young KS. Caught in the Net: How to Recognize the Signs of Internet Addiction and a Sinning Strategy for Recovery. New York: John Wiley & Sons;1998. p.31-34.

23.
Young KS. Internet Addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. Cyberpsychol Behav 1998;1:237-244. crossref(new window)

24.
Young KS. Internet addiction: symptoms, evaluation and treatment. Innovations in clinical practice: a source book 1999;17:19-31.

25.
Yu NJ, Shin SC, Wang SK. A study on the standardization of the Korean version of J.A. Horne and O. Ostbergs' morningness-eveningness questionnaire and on the sleep pattern. J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc 1995;34:642-656.