RST Invariant Digital Watermarking Based on Image Representation by Wedges and Rings Kim, Ki-Jung;
This paper describes a new image watermarking scheme invariant to rotation, scaling and translation (RST) attacks. For obtaining the invariance properties we propose to present an image of watermark by wedges and rings to convert its rotation to shift and then utilize the shift invariance property of the Direct Fourier Transform (DFT). But in contrast to conversional schemes based on the Fourier-Mellin transform (FMT), we do not use a log-polar mapping (LPM). As a result, our scheme preserves high quality of original image since it is not underwent to LPM For withstanding against JPEG compression, noise addition and low-pass (LP) filtering attacks a low frequency watermark is embedded into middle frequencies of the original image. Experiments with various attacks show the robustness of the proposed scheme.
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