Advanced SearchSearch Tips
A Study on the Serious Games Design Framework via Potential Outcomes - Focused on Construal Level Interventions
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : International Journal of Contents
  • Volume 10, Issue 4,  2014, pp.53-62
  • Publisher : The Korea Contents Association
  • DOI : 10.5392/IJoC.2014.10.4.053
 Title & Authors
A Study on the Serious Games Design Framework via Potential Outcomes - Focused on Construal Level Interventions
Lee, Hye Rim; Jeong, Eui Jun;
  PDF(new window)
Although many studies have considered the outcomes and impacts of serious games, little is known about the factors which affect a user's perception or interpretation in games during the process of decision making from theoretical perspectives. This study aimed to explore the process of user perception from the perspective of construal level theory, and to suggest a theoretical design approach for the development of effective serious games. In the current study, cognitive and affective learning outcomes were articulated through literature review and synthesized into a series of assumptions with persuasive and educational aspects in serious games. Serious games reflect the potential of the game mechanism for changing players' perception, and helping with knowledge acquisition of the users. The potential to use construal level theory for effective serious games interventions was suggested, and a Serious Games Design Framework was proposed via potential outcomes from recent advanced research. Finally, implications of the application of the suggested model with various-related purposes and directions for future research were discussed. The model could be useful not only for game researchers and designers, but also for game marketers in attracting potential consumers.
Serious Games;Construal Level Theory;Serious Games Design Framework;Game Design;Game Research;
 Cited by
E. M. Raybourn, "A new paradigm for serious games: Transmedia learning for more effective training and education," Journal of Computational Science, vol. 5, no.3, 2013, pp. 471-481.

H. R Lee and E. J Jeong, "Creative Evolution of Digital Leisure Culture, Serious Games," Journal of the korea contents association, The Korea Contents Association, vol. 13, no. 12, 2013, pp. 48-61. crossref(new window)

M. Zyda, "From visual simulation to virtual reality to games," IEEE Computer Society, vol.38, no. 9, 2005, pp. 25-32.

J. P. Gee, What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy, New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003.

D. Michael and S. Chen, Serious games: Games that educate, train, and inform, Course Technology PTR, USA, 2006.

B. Sawyer and P. Smith, "On Serious Gaming For Life, Serious Games Summit," Game Developers Association, San Francisco, 2008.

H. Markus and P. Nurius, "Possible selves," The American Psychologist, vol. 41, 1986, pp. 954-969. crossref(new window)

C. Sedikides, T. Wildschut, J. Arndt, and C. Routledge, "Nostalgia: Past, present, and future," Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol. 17, 2008, pp. 304-307. crossref(new window)

Y. Trope and N. Liberman, "Construal-level theory of psychological distance," Psychological Review, vol. 117, no. 2, 2010, pp. 440-463. crossref(new window)

Y. Trope, N. Liberman, and C. Wakslak, "Construal Levels and Psychological Distance: Effects on Representation, Prediction, Evaluation, and Behavior," Journal of consumar psychology, vol. 17, no. 2, 2007, pp. 83-95. crossref(new window)

A. L. Freitas, P. Salovey, and N. Liberman, "Abstract and concrete self-evaluative goals," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 80, no. 3, 2001, pp. 410-424. crossref(new window)

K. Fujita, Y. Trope, N. Liberman, and M. Levin-Sagi, "Construal levels and self-control," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 90, no. 3, 2006, pp. 351-367. crossref(new window)

F. R. Kardes, M. L. Cronley, and J. Kim, "Construal-level effects on preference stability, preference-behavior correspondence, and the suppression of competing brands," Journal of Consumer Psychology, vol. 16, 2006, pp. 135-144. crossref(new window)

A. L. Freitas, P. Gollwitzer, and Y. Trope, "The influence of abstract and concrete mindsets on anticipating and guiding others' self-regulatory efforts," Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 40, 2004, pp. 739-752. crossref(new window)

D. V. Thompson, R. W. Hamilton, and R. T. Rust, "Feature fatigue: when product capabilities become too much of a good thing," Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 42, 2005, pp. 1-24. crossref(new window)

P. M. Gollwitzer, Mindset theory of action phases, In P. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski and E. Tory Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology, London: Sage, 2011, pp. 526-547.

H. Kim, A. R. Rao, and A. Y. Lee, "It's time to vote: the effect of matching message orientation and temporal frame on political persuasion," Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 35, 2009, pp. 877-889. crossref(new window)

S. Nussbaum, N. Liberman, and Y. Trope, Y, "Predicting the near and distant future," Journal of Experimental Psychology, General, vol. 135, 2006, pp. 152-161. crossref(new window)

S. Nussbaum, Y. Trope, and N. Liberman, "Creeping dispositionism: The temporal dynamics of behavior prediction," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 84, 2003, pp. 485-497. crossref(new window)

H. Lavine, and M. Snyder, "Cognitive processing and the functional matching effect in persuasion: The mediating role of subjective perceptions of message quality," Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 32, 1996, pp. 580-604. crossref(new window)

R. E. Petty and D. T. Wegener, "Matching versus mismatching attitude functions: Implications for scrutiny of persuasive messages," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol. 24, 1998, pp. 227-240. crossref(new window)

S. J. Katz and S. Byrne, "Construal Level Theory of Mobile Persuasion," Media Psychology, 2013, vol.16, pp. 245-271. crossref(new window)

K. Fujita and J. J. Carnevale, "Transcending Temptation Through Abstraction : The Role of Construal Level in Self-Control," Psychological Science, vol. 21(4), 2012, pp. 248-252.

R. Garris, R. Ahlers, and J. E. Driskell, "Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model," Simulation and Gaming, vol. 33, 2002, pp. 441-467. crossref(new window)

H. F. O'Neil, R. Wainess, and E. L. Baker, "Classification of learning outcomes: Evidence from the computer games literature," The Curriculum Journal, vol. 16, no. 4, 2005, pp. 455-474. crossref(new window)

P. Wouters, E. D. van der Spek, and H. van Oostendorp, Current practices in serious game research: A review from a learning outcomes perspective, In T. M. Connolly, M. Stansfield and L. Boyle (Eds.), Games-based learning advancements for multisensory human computer interfaces: Techniques and effective practices, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2009, pp. 232-250.

S. de Freitas and M. Oliver, "How can exploratory learning with games and simulations within the curriculum be most effectively evaluated?," Computers & Education. vol. 46, no. 3, 2006, pp. 249-264. crossref(new window)

M. Seeney and H. Routledge, Drawing circles in the sand: integrating content into serious games, In: T. Connolly, M. Stansfield, and L. Boyle (eds), Games-Based Learning Advancements for Multi-Sensory Human Computer Interfaces, Techniques and Effective Practices, Hershey, London: IGI Global, 2009.

L. A. Annetta, M. R. Murray, S. G. Laird, S. C. Bohr, and J. C. Park, "Serious Games: Incorporating Video Games in the Classroom," Educause Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 3, 2006, pp. 16-22.

A. D. Baddeley, "The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory?," Trends in Cognitive Sciences. vol. 4, no. 11, 2000, pp. 417-423. crossref(new window)

C. Fadel, "Multimodal learning through media: What the research says," White Paper, Cisco., 2008.

A. Mitchell, and C. Savill-Smith, "The Use of Computer and Video Games for Learning: A Review of the Literature," Learning and Skills Development Agency, London., 2004.

J. Kirriemuir, and C. A. McFarlane, "Literature review in games and learning," White Paper, Future Lab,, 2006.

S. De Freitas, F. Liarokapis, G. Magoulas, and A. Poulovassilis, "Developing an evaluation methodology for immersive learning experiences in a virtual world," Conference in Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications, 2009.

S. De Freitas, G. Rebolledo-Mendez, F. Liarokapis, G. Magoulas, and A. Poulovassilis, "Learning as immersive experiences: using the four dimensional framework for designing and evaluating immersive learning experiences in a virtual world," British Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 41, no. 1, 2010, pp. 69-85. crossref(new window)

J. P. V. Staalduinen and S. de Freitas, A game-based learning framework: Linking game design and learning outcomes, In: M. S. Khyne (ed.), Learning to Play: Exploring the Future of Education with Video Games, Peter Lang, New York, 2011, pp. 29-54.

R. Gagne, Conditions of Learning (3rd ed), New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1977, pp. 98-112.

G. Mandler, Mind and body: Psychology of emotion and stress, New York: Norton, 1984.

A. Bandura, "Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change," Psychological review, vol. 84, 1977, p. 191. crossref(new window)

E. Salas and J. A. Cannon-Bowers, "The science of training: A decade of progress," Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 52, 2001, pp. 471-499. crossref(new window)

D. Pavlas, K. Heyne, W. Bedwell, E. Lazzara, and E. Salas, "Game-based Learning: The Impact of Flow State and Videogame Self-efficacy," Proceedings of the human factors and ergonomics society 54th annual meeting, 2010.

N. L. Stein and L. J. Levine, Making sense out of emotion, in: W. Kessen, A. Ortony, and F. Kraik (Eds), Memories, thoughts, and emotions: essays in honor of George Mandler (Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum), 1991, pp. 295-322.

T. M. Connolly, E. Boyle and T. A. Hainey, "survey of students' motivations for playing computer games: a comparative analysis," In Proceedings of the 1st European conference on games-based learning (ECGBL), Paisley, Scotland, 2007, pp. 25-26.

J. Forster and E. T. Higgins, "How global versus local perception fits regulatory focus," Psychological Science, vol. 16, 2005, pp.631-636. crossref(new window)

R. Friedman and J. Forster, Activation and measurement of motivational states, In A. Elliott (Ed.), Handbook of approach and avoidance motivation, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2008, pp. 235-246.

K. O'Brien and D. O'Hare, "Situational awareness ability and cognitive skills training in a complex real-world task," Ergonomics, vol. 50, no. 7, 2007, pp.1064-1091. crossref(new window)

Y. Trope and N. Liberman, "Temporal construal and timedependent changes in preference," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 79, 2000, pp. 876-889. crossref(new window)

U. Ritterfeld and R. Weber, Video Games for Entertainment and Education, In P. Vorderer and J. Bryant (Eds.), Playing Video Games-Motives, Responses, and Consequences, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, Inc, 2006, pp. 399-413.

C. Kilmmt, Serious Games and Social Change. Why They (Should) Work, Serious Games: Mechanisms and Effects, By Ute Ritterfeld et al., Taylor & Francis, 2009, pp. 248-270.

M. Prensky, Digital Game-Based Learning, New York: McGraw Hill, 2001.

W. Wirth, T. Hartmann, S. Bocking, P. Vorderer, C. Klimmt, H. Schramm, et al, "A process model of the formation of spatial presence experiences," Media Psychology, vol. 9, 2007, pp. 493-525. crossref(new window)

D. Hefner, C. Klimmt, and P. Vorderer, "Identification with the player character as determinant of video game enjoyment," Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4740, 2007, pp. 39-49.

M. Asgari and D. Kaufman, Motivation, learning, and game design, E. Richard Ferdig (ed.), Handbook of Research on Effective Electronic Gaming in Education, Information Science Reference, New York. Vol. III, Chapter LXVII, 2008, pp. 1166-1182.

H. R. Lee and E. J. Jeong, "A Preliminary Study of Serious Game Effect Model: based on Construal-Level Theory", Journal of Korea Game Society, vol.14, no.4, 2014, pp. 105-120. crossref(new window)