JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Kriging Analysis for Spatio-temporal Variations of Ground Level Ozone Concentration
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Kriging Analysis for Spatio-temporal Variations of Ground Level Ozone Concentration
Gorai, Amit Kumar; Jain, Kumar Gourav; Shaw, Neha; Tuluri, Francis; Tchounwou, Paul B.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Exposure of high concentration of ground-level ozone (GLO) can trigger a variety of health problems including chest pain, coughing, throat irritation, asthma, bronchitis and congestion. There are substantial human and animal toxicological data that support health effects associated with exposure to ozone and associations have been observed with a wide range of outcomes in epidemiological studies. The aim of the present study is to estimate the spatial distributions of GLO using geostatistical method (ordinary kriging) for assessing the exposure level of ozone in the eastern part of Texas, U.S.A. GLO data were obtained from 63 U.S. EPA's monitoring stations distributed in the region of study during the period January, 2012 to December, 2012. The descriptive statistics indicate that the spatial monthly mean of daily maximum 8 hour ozone concentrations ranged from 30.33 ppb (in January) to 48.05 (in June). The monthly mean of daily maximum 8 hour ozone concentrations was relatively low during the winter months (December, January, and February) and the higher values observed during the summer months (April, May, and June). The higher level of spatial variations observed in the months of July (Standard Deviation: 10.33) and August (Standard Deviation: 10.02). This indicates the existence of regional variations in climatic conditions in the study area. The range of the semivariogram models varied from 0.372 (in November) to 15.59 (in April). The value of the range represents the spatial patterns of ozone concentrations. Kriging maps revealed that the spatial patterns of ozone concentration were not uniform in each month. This may be due to uneven fluctuation in the local climatic conditions from one region to another. Thus, the formation and dispersion processes of ozone also change unevenly from one region to another. The ozone maps clearly indicate that the concentration values found maximum in the north-east region of the study area in most of the months. Part of the coastal area also showed maximum concentrations during the months of October, November, December, and January.
 Keywords
Ground level ozone (GLO);Geostatistics;Kriging;Mapping;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Araghinejad, S., Burn, D.H. (2005) Probabilistic forecasting of hydrological events using geostatistical analysis, Hydrological Sciences Journal 50(5), 837-856.

2.
Bascom, R., Bromberg, P.A., Costa, D.A., Devlin, R., Dockery, D.W., Frampton, M.W., Lambert, W., Samet, J.M., Speizer, F.E., Utell, M. (1996) Health effects of outdoor air pollution. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 153(1), 3-50. crossref(new window)

3.
Bassin, S., Volk, M., Fuhrer, J. (2007) Factors affecting the ozone sensitivity of temperate European grasslands:an overview. Environmental Pollution 146(3), 678-691. crossref(new window)

4.
Buttner, O., Becker, A., Kuehn, B., Wendt-Potthoff, K., Zachmann, D.W., Friese, K. (1998) Geostatistical analysis of surface sediments in an acidic mining lake. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 108(3), 297-316. crossref(new window)

5.
Carlon, C., Critto, A., Marcomini, A., Nathanail, P. (2001) Risk based characterisation of contaminated industrial site using multivariate and geostatistical tools. Environmental Pollution 111(3), 417-427. crossref(new window)

6.
Chang, Y.H., Scrimshaw, M.D., Emmerson, R.H.C., Lester, J.N. (1998) Geostatistical analysis of sampling uncertainty at the Tollesbury managed retreat site in Blackwater Estuary, Essex, UK: kriging and cokriging approach to minimise sampling density. Science of The Total Environment 221(1), 43-57. crossref(new window)

7.
Chien, Y.L., Lee, D.Y., Guo, H.Y., Houng, K.H. (1997) Geostatistical analysis of soil properties of mid-west Taiwan soils. Soil Science 162(4), 291-297. crossref(new window)

8.
Coppalle, A., Delmas, V., Bobbia, M. (2001) Variability of $NO_x$ and $NO_2$ concentrations observed at pedestrian level in the city centre of a medium sized urban area. Atmospheric Environment 35(31), 5361-5369. crossref(new window)

9.
Edwards, G., Fortin, M.J. (2001) Delineation and Analysis of Vegetation Boundaries, Spatial Uncertainty in Ecology: Implications for Remote Sensing and GIS Application. Hunsaker, C.T., Goodchild, M.A., Friedl, A., Case, T.J., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, U.S.A, pp. 158-174.

10.
Ella, V.B., Melvin, S.W., Kanwar, R.S. (2001) Spatial analysis of $NO_3-N$ concentration in glacial till. Transactions of the ASAE 44(2), 317-327.

11.
ESRI (2001) Using analytic tools when generating surfaces. Geostatistical Analyst Extension Redlands: CA:ESRI Inc, pp. 128-167.

12.
ESRI (2003) ArcGIS 9. Using ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst: Online Available from: http://forums.esri.com/Thread.asp?c=93&f=1727&t=257926, accessed on December 2013.

13.
Fuhrer, J. (1994) The critical level for ozone to protect agricultural crops: An assessment of datafrom European open-top chamber experiments, Critical levels for ozone: A UNECE workshop report, Schriftreihe der Les Cahiers de la FAC Liebefeld 16, Liebefeld-Bern, Switzerland, pp. 42-57.

14.
Germann, U., Joss, J. (2001) Variograms of radar reflectivity to describe the spatial continuity of alpine precipitation. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 40(6), 1042-1059. crossref(new window)

15.
Goovaerts, P. (1997) Geostatistics for natural resources evaluation. Applied Geostatistics Series, Oxford University Press.

16.
Goovaerts, P. (2001) Geostatistical modeling of uncertainty in soil science. Geoderma 103, 3-26. crossref(new window)

17.
Gorai, A.K., Kumar, S. (2013) Assessment of Groundwater Quality using Statistical and Geostatistical techniques in Ranchi Municipal Corporation Area, Jharkhand, India. Geoinformatics and Geostatistics: An Overview 1(2). doi:10.4172/2327-4581.1000105. crossref(new window)

18.
Gotway, C.A., Feruson, R.B., Hergert, G.W., Peterson, T.A. (1996) Comparison of kriging and inverse distance methods for mapping soil parameters. Soil Science Society of America Journal 60(4), 1237-1247. crossref(new window)

19.
Gringarten, E., Deutsch, C.V. (2001) Teacher's aide variogram interpretation and modeling. Mathematical Geology 33(4), 507-534. crossref(new window)

20.
Hayes, F., Mills, G., Harmens, H., Norris, D. (2007) Evidence of Widespread Ozone Damage to Vegetation in Europe (1990-2006), ICP Vegetation Programme Coordination Centre, CEH Bangor, UK, pp. 58.

21.
Hopkins, L.P., Ensor, K.B., Rifai, H.S. (1999) Empirical evaluation of ambient ozone interpolation procedures to support exposure models. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 49(7), 839-846. crossref(new window)

22.
Hossein, E., Gallichand, J.M. (1994) Theoretical and experimental performance of spatial interpolation methods for soil salinity analysis. Transactions of the ASAE 37(6), 1799-1807. crossref(new window)

23.
Isaaks, E.H., Srivastava, R.H. (1989) An Introduction to Applied Geostatistics. Oxford University Press, New York.

24.
Journel, A.G., Huijbregts, C.J. (1978) Mining Geostatistics. Academic Press, London.

25.
Juang, K.W., Liou, D.C., Lee, D.Y. (2002) Site specific application based on the kriging fertilizer-phosphorus availability index of soils. Journal of Environmental Quality 31(4), 1248-1255. crossref(new window)

26.
Keefer, D.K. (1994) The importance of earthquake-induced landslides to long term slope erosion and slope-failure hazards in seismically active regions. Geomorphology, 10(1-4), 265-284. crossref(new window)

27.
Kravchenko, A., Bullock, D.G. (1999) A comparative study of interpolation methods for mapping soil properties. AGRONOMY JOURNAL 91(3), 393-400. crossref(new window)

28.
Kumar, D., Ahmed, S. (2003) Seasonal behaviour of spatial variability of groundwater level in a granitic aquifer in monsoon climate. CURRENT SCIENCE 84(2), 188-196.

29.
Lin, Y.P., Chang, T.K., Teng, T.P. (2001) Characterization of soil lead by comparing of sequential Gaussian simulation, simulated annealing simulation and kriging methods. Environmental Geology 41(1), 189-199. crossref(new window)

30.
Lin, Y.P., Chu, H.J., Wang, C.L., Yu, H.H., Wang, Y.C. (2009) Remote sensing data with the conditional Latin hypercube sampling and geostatistical approach to delineate landscape changes induced by large chronological physical disturbances. Sensors 9, 148-174. crossref(new window)

31.
Lippmann, M. (1993) Health effects of tropospheric ozone: review of recent research findings and their implications to ambient air quality standards. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology Epidemiol. 3(1), 103-129.

32.
Maity, P. (2006) Spatial variability analysis of penetration resistance of IARI farm to delineate compact zones. M.Sc. thesis, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.

33.
McGrath, D., Zhang, C.S., Carton, O.T. (2004) Geostatistical analyses and hazard assessment on soil lead in Silvermines area, Ireland. Environmental Pollution 127(2), 239-248. crossref(new window)

34.
Merino, G.G., Jones, D., Stooksbury, D.E., Hubbard, K. G. (2001) Determination of Semivariogram Models to Krige Hourly and Daily Solar Irradiance in Western Nebraska. Journal of Applied Meteorology 40(6), 1085-1094. crossref(new window)

35.
Mills, G., Buse, A., Gimeno, B., Bermejo, V., Holland, M., Emberson, L., Pleijel, H. (2007) A synthesis of AOT40-based response functions and critical levels of ozone for agricultural and horticultural crops. Atmospheric Environment 41(12), 2630-2643. crossref(new window)

36.
Mulholland, J.A., Butler, A.J., Wilkinson, J.G., Russell, A.G., Tolbert, P.E. (1998) Temporal and spatial distributions of ozone in Atlanta: regulatory and epidemiologic implications Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 48(5), 418-426. crossref(new window)

37.
Myers, D.E. (1991). Interpolation and estimation with spatially located data. Chemometr Intell. Lab. 11, 209-228. crossref(new window)

38.
Oliver, M.A., Webster, R., McGrath, S.P. (1996) Disjunctive kriging for environmental management. Environmetrics 7(3), 333-357. crossref(new window)

39.
Phillips, D.L., Tingey, D.T., Lee, E.H., Herstrom, A.A., Hogsett, W.E. (1997) Use of auxiliary data for spatial interpolation of ozone exposure in southeastern forests. Environmetrics 8(1), 43-61. crossref(new window)

40.
Poon, K., Wong, R.W., Lam, M.H., Yeung, H., Chiu, T.K. (2000) Geostatistical modelling of the spatial distribution of sewage pollution in coastal sediments. Water Research 34(1), 99-108. crossref(new window)

41.
Sanders, G., Balls, G., Booth, C. (1994) Ozone Critical Levels for Agricultural Crops: Analyses and Interpretation of The Results from The UNECE International Co-Operative Programme for Crops, Critical Levels for Ozone: A UNECE workshop report, Schriftreihe der Les Cahiers de la FAC Liebefeld 16, Liebefeld-Bern, Switzerland, pp. 58-72.

42.
Sarangi, A., Madramootoo, C.A., Enright, P. (2006) Comparison of spatial variability techniques for runoff estimation from a Canadian Watershed. Biosystems Engineering 95(2), 295-308. crossref(new window)

43.
Schaub, M., Skelly, J.M., Zhang, J.W., Ferdinand, J.A., Savage, J.E., Stevenson, R.E., Davis, D.D., Steiner, in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer Rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions. Environmental Pollution 133(3), 553-567.

44.
Shi, J., Wang, H., Xu, J., Wu, J., Liu, X., Zhu, H., Yu, C. (2007) Spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils: a case study of Changxing, China. Environmental Geology 52(1), 1-10. crossref(new window)

45.
Stein, M.L. (1999) Interpolation of spatial data: Some theory for kriging. Springer, Berlin.

46.
Tayanc, M. (2000) An assessment of spatial and temporal variation of sulphur dioxide levels over Istanbul, Turkey. Environmental Pollution 107(1), 61-69. crossref(new window)

47.
Tranchant, B.J.S., Vincent, A.P. (2000) Statistical interpolation of ozone measurements from satellite data (TOMS, SBUV and SAGE II) using the kriging method. Annales Geophysicae 18(6), 666-678. crossref(new window)

48.
U.S. Census Bureau, State Area Measurement Available from: http://www.census.gov/geo/reference/state-area.html (Last accessed on 13th January, 2013).

49.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1996) Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone:Assessment of Scientific and Technical Information, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Report No. EPA-452/R-07-007, Research Triangle Park, NC.

50.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Technology Transfer Network (TTN) Air Quality System (AQS) Data Mart. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/airdata/ad_rep_mon.html/ (Last accessed on 13th January, 2013).

51.
Vardoulakis, S., Gonzalez-Flesca, N., Fisher, B.E.A., Pericleous, K. (2005) Spatial variability of air pollution in the vicinity of a permanent monitoring station in central Paris. Atmospheric Environment 39(15), 2725-2736. crossref(new window)

52.
Webster, R., Oliver, M.A. (2007) Geostatistics for environmental scientists (Statistics in practice). Wiley, Chichester.

53.
Yamamoto, J.K. (2000) An alternative measure of the reliability of ordinary kriging estimates. Mathematical Geology 32(4), 489-509. crossref(new window)