High Time-resolution Characterization of PM2.5 Sulfate Measured in a Japanese Urban Site

Title & Authors
High Time-resolution Characterization of PM2.5 Sulfate Measured in a Japanese Urban Site
Ma, Chang-Jin; Kang, Gong-Unn; Kim, Ki-Hyun;

Abstract
The high time-resolution monitoring data are essential to estimate rapid changes in chemical compositions, concentrations, formation mechanisms, and likely sources of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In this study, $\small{PM_{2.5}}$ sulfate, $\small{PM_{2.5}}$, $\small{PM_{10}}$, and the number concentration of size-resolved PMs were monitored in Fukuoka, Japan by good time-resolved methods during the springtime. The highest monthly average $\small{PM_{2.5}}$ sulfate was found in May ($\small{8.85{\mu}g\;m^{-3}}$), followed by April ($\small{8.36{\mu}g\;m^{-3}}$), March ($\small{8.13{\mu}g\;m^{-3}}$), and June ($\small{7.22{\mu}g\;m^{-3}}$). The cases exceed the Japanese central government`s safety standard for $\small{PM_{2.5}}$ ($\small{35{\mu}g\;m^{-3}}$) reached 10.11% during four months campaign. The fraction of $\small{PM_{2.5}}$ sulfate to $\small{PM_{2.5}}$ varied from 12.05% to 68.11% with average value of 35.49% throughout the entire period of monitoring. This high proportion of sulfate in $\small{PM_{2.5}}$ is an obvious characteristic of the ambient $\small{PM_{2.5}}$ in Fukuoka during the springtime. However, the average fraction of $\small{PM_{2.5}}$ sulfate to $\small{PM_{2.5}}$ in three rain events occurred during our intensive campaign fell right down to 15.53%. Unusually high $\small{PM_{2.5}}$ sulfate (> $\small{30{\mu}g\;m^{-3}}$) marked on three days were probably affected by the air parcels coming from the Chinese continent, the natural sulfur in the remote marine atmosphere, and a large number of ships sailing on the nearby sea. The theoretical number concentration of $\small{(NH_4)_2SO_4}$ in $\small{PM_{0.5-0.3}}$ was originally calculated and then compared to $\small{PM_{2.5}}$ sulfate. A close resemblance between the diurnal variations of the theoretically calculated number concentration of $\small{(NH_4)_2SO_4}$ in $\small{PM_{0.5-0.3}}$ and $\small{PM_{2.5}}$ sulfate concentration indicates that the secondary formed $\small{(NH_4)}$$\small{_2SO_4}$ was the primary form of sulfate in $\small{PM_{2.5}}$ during our monitoring period.
Keywords
Sulfate;Particulate matter;$\small{PM_{2.5}}$;Particle number concentration;Fukuoka;
Language
English
Cited by
1.
A world avoided: impacts of changes in anthropogenic emissions on the burden and effects of air pollutants in Europe and North America, Faraday Discussions, 2017, 200, 1364-5498, 475
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