JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
The Effects of Fiber Source on Organ Weight, Digesta pH, Specific Activities of Digestive Enzymes and Bacterial Activity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Piglets
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
The Effects of Fiber Source on Organ Weight, Digesta pH, Specific Activities of Digestive Enzymes and Bacterial Activity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Piglets
Ma, Yongxi; Li, Defa; Qiao, S.Y.; Huang, C.H.; Han, In K.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore the effects of fiber sources on gut development and bacterial activity in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets. Eighteen crossbred (DurocLandraceYorkshire) barrows were fed a basal diet based on corn plus soybean meal or similar diets in which a portion of the corn and soybean was replaced by 5% wheat bran or 5% sugar beet pulp. The results indicate that pigs fed diets containing 5% wheat bran or 5% sugar beet pulp had lower liver weights than control pigs (p<0.01). The relative weight of the pancreas in pigs fed diets containing 5% sugar beet pulp was greater than that of control pigs or pigs fed diets containing 5% wheat bran (p<0.05). The pH of the ileal digesta of pigs fed the diet containing 5% wheat bran was higher than that of control pigs or pigs fed the diet containing 5% sugar beet pulp (p<0.05). The lipase activity in the distal jejunum, proximal, and distal ileum of pigs fed the control diet was higher than that of pigs fed the diets containing 5% wheat bran or 5% sugar beet pulp (p<0.05). The concentration of volatile fatty acids anterior to the caecum was greater for the pigs fed the diet containing 5% sugar beet pulp, while the concentration of volatile fatty acids posterior to the ileum was greater for the pigs fed the diet containing 5% wheat bran. This means that sugar beet pulp increased the bacterial fermentation precaecum, while wheat bran increased the bacterial fermentation post-ileum. The concentration of bacterial nitrogen and bacterial protein/total protein in ileal digesta of pigs fed the control diet was higher (p<0.05) than that of pigs fed the diets contained either fiber source. Bacterial protein/total protein in the feces of pigs fed the diet containing 5% sugar beet pulp was higher than that of pigs fed the control diet. This means that inclusion of 5% wheat bran or sugar beet pulp in diets influenced the development of the digestive tract of piglet. The mechanism by which dietary fiber reduced specific activity of lipase needs further consideration. Dietary fiber influenced the bacterial activity in the digestive tract of piglets, sugar beet pulp increased the fermentation in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and while wheat bran increased the fermentation in the lower gastrointestinal tract.
 Keywords
Wheat Bran;Sugar Beet Pulp;Piglet;Gastrointestinal Tract Development;Bacterial Activity;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis, 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC.

2.
Bach Knudsen, K. E. 1997. Carbohydrate and lignin contents of plant materials used in animal feeding. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 67:319-338. crossref(new window)

3.
Bardon, T. and J. Fioramonti. 1983. Nature of the effects of bran on digestive transit time in pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 50:685-690. crossref(new window)

4.
Calvert, R., B. O. Schneeman, S. Satchithanandam, M. M. Cassidy and G. V. Vahouny. 1985. Dietary fiber and intestinal adaptation: Effects on intestinal and pancreatic digestive enzyme activities. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41:1249-1256.

5.
Dierick, N. A., I. J. Vervaeke, J. A. Decuypere and H. K. Henderickx. 1990. Bacterial protein synthesis in relation to organic matter digestion in the hindgut of growing pigs: Contribution of hindgut fermentation to total energy supply and growth performances. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 63:220-235. crossref(new window)

6.
Drocher, W. 1991. Digestion of carbohydrates in the pig. In: Digestive Physiology in Pigs (Ed. M. W. A. Verstegen, J. Huisman and L. A. den Hartog). Pudoc Wageningen. Netherlands. pp. 367-388.

7.
Dunaif, G. and B. O. Schneeman. 1981. The effect of dietary fiber on human pancreatic enzyme activity in vitro. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34:1034-1035.

8.
Farness, P. L and B. O. Schneeman. 1982. Effects of dietary cellulose, pectin and oat bran on the small intestine in the rat. J. Nutr. 112:1315-1319.

9.
Hambrecht, E. 1998. Effect of non-starch polysaccharides on performance, incidence of diarrhea and gut growth in weaned pigs. Master. Thesis, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart. pp. 83-88.

10.
Hansen, W. E. 1987. Effect of dietary fiber on pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. Pancreas. 2:195-198. crossref(new window)

11.
Hendrick, J. A., T. Tadokoro, C. Emenhiser, U. Nienaber and O. R. Fennema. 1992. Various dietary fibers have different effects on lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of tributyrin in vitro. J Nutr. 122: 269-277.

12.
Jensen, B. B. and H. Jorgensen. 1994. Effect of dietary fiber on microbial activity and microbial gas production in various regions of the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:1897-1904.

13.
Jensen, M. T., R. P. Cox and B. B. Jensen. 1995. Microbial production of skatole in the hind gut of pigs fed different diets and its relation to skatole deposition in backfat. Anim. Sci. 61:293-304.

14.
Jin, L., L. P. Reynolds, D. A. Redmer, J. S. Caton and J. D. Crenshaw. 1994. Effects of dietary fiber on intestinal growth, cell proliferation, and morphology in growing pigs. J Anim. Sci. 72:2270-2278.

15.
Johansen, H. N. 1993. Dietary fiber from oats: Physicochemical properties and physiological function in the stomach and small intestine of pigs. Ph.D. Thesis, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark. pp. 55-57.

16.
Jorgensen Henry, Xin-quan Zhao and B. O. Eggum. 1996. The influence of dietary fiber and environmental temperature on the development of gastrointestinal tract, digestibility, degree of fermentation in the hind gut and energy metabolism in pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 75:365-378. crossref(new window)

17.
Lairon, D., H. Lafont, J. L. Vigne, G. Nalbone, J. Leonardi and J. C. Hauton. 1985. Effects of dietary fibers and cholestyramine on the activity of pancreatic lipase in vitro. Am J Clin Nutr. 42:629-638.

18.
Leng Peschlow, E. 1989. Interference of dietary fibers with gastrointestinal enzymes in vitro. Digestion. 44:200-210. crossref(new window)

19.
Li, S., W. C. Saucer and R. T. Hardin. 1994. Effects of dietary fiber level on amino acid digestibility in young pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 74:327-333.

20.
Michel, P. and A. Rerat. 1998. Effect of adding sugar beet fiber and wheat bran to a starch diet on the absorption kinetics of glucose, amino-nitrogen and volatile fatty acids in the pig. Reprod Nutr Dev. 38:49-68. crossref(new window)

21.
Muller, H. and A. E. Harmuth Hoene. 1984. Determination of fecal bacterial nitrogen in rats. Z Ernahrungswiss. 23:52-57. crossref(new window)

22.
Muller, H. and A. E. Harmuth Hoene. 1986. The effect of cellulose on endogenous nitrogen excretion in rats, evaluated using N-15 technics. Z Ernahrungswiss. 25:38-46. crossref(new window)

23.
Mosenthin, R and W. C. Sauer. 1993. Exocrine pancreatic secretions in pigs as influenced by the source of carbohydrate in the diet. Z Ernahrungswiss. 32:152-155. crossref(new window)

24.
Mosenthin, R. 1987. Untersuchungen zum EinfluB pflanzlichen Kohlenhydrate in Rationen wachsender Schweine auf die endogenen Stickstoff- und Enzymsekretion in den Verdauungstrakt sowie auf praecaecale und postileale Umsetzungen N-haltiger Verbindungen. Habiliationschrift. Universitaet Kiel, FRG.

25.
Mosenthin, R., E. Hamberecht and W. C. Sauer. 1999. Utilisation of different fibers in piglet feeds. In: Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. (Ed. P. C. Garnsworthy and J. Wiseman). Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK. pp. 227-256.

26.
Pond, W. G., H. G. Jung and V. H. Varel. 1988. Effect of dietary fiber on young adult genetically lean, obese and contemporary pigs: body weight, carcass measurements, organ weighs and digesta content. J. Anim. Sci. 66:699-706.

27.
Pond, W. G. 1989. Plant fiber utilization by pigs. Pig News Info. 10: 5-8.

28.
Sauer, W. C., R. Mosenthin, F. Ahrens and L. A. den Hartog. 1991. The effect of source of fiber on ileal and fecal amino acids digestibility and bacterial nitrogen excretion on growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 69:4070-4077.

29.
Schulze, H., P. van Leeuwen, M. W. A. Verstegen and J. W. O. Van den Berg. 1995. Dietary level and source of neutral detergent fiber and ileal endogenous nitrogen flow in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73:441-448.

30.
Stanogias G. and G. R. Pearce. 1985. The digestion of fiber by pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 53: 513-548. crossref(new window)

31.
Van der Meullen, J. and J. G. M. Bakker. 1991. Effects of various sources of dietary fiber on chemico-physical characteristics of digesta in the stomach and the small intestine of the pig. In: Digestive Physiology in Pigs (Ed. M. W. A. Verstegen, J. Huisman and L. A. den Hartog). Pudoc Wageningen. Netherlands. pp. 440-445.