Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Enrichment of Pork with Omega-3 Fatty Acids by Tuna Oil Supplements: Effects on Performance as well as Sensory, Nutritional and Processing Properties of Pork
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Enrichment of Pork with Omega-3 Fatty Acids by Tuna Oil Supplements: Effects on Performance as well as Sensory, Nutritional and Processing Properties of Pork
Jaturasitha, S.; Wudthithumkanaporn, Y.; Rurksasen, P.; Kreuzer, M.;
  PDF(new window)
The effects of tuna oil supplementation (0, 1, 2 and 3%) to pig diets on growth and carcass yield as well as meat quality were determined in 40 crossbred pigs. Animals were fattened from 30 to 90 kg of live-weight. Twenty-four hours after slaughter, following various early- and late-post mortem measurements, loin, backfat and belly were prepared from the carcasses. Bacon was produced from the belly part by curing and smoking. Neither performance (feed intake, daily gains, feed conversion efficiency) nor carcass quality (slaughter weight, dressing percentage, lean percentage, nutrient composition of the loin) were significantly affected by tuna oil supplementation. Tuna oil also had no clear effects on early- and late-post mortem meat quality traits, water-holding capacity and tenderness of the M. longissiumus dorsi (LD). Colour traits of LD and backfat, and backfat firmness were not significantly affected by tuna oil, either. However, there was a certain trend to elevated fat contents of LD (and bacon), but not of backfat, with increasing levels of tuna oil in feed. Pigs receiving elevated proportions of tuna oil expressed lower VLDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in blood plasma, whereas the cholesterol content of LD, backfat and bacon did not reflect this trend. Effects of tuna oil on fatty acids in LD, backfat and bacon were often small in extent, except those concerning the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. With 3% tuna oil in the diet, the contents of the particularly desired omega-3 fatty acids, C20:5 and C22:6, were 0.1 and 0.2 g/kg in LD. The corresponding values for backfat and bacon were 2.6 and 12.6 g/kg, and 1.3 and 9.2 g/kg, respectively. Tuna oil supplementation was associated with significant adverse effects on flavour and overall acceptance of bacon (not significant in LD although numerically the same trend was noted), but these effects on sensory ratings were limited in extent. Also shelf life of the products, determined as TBA value after different storage periods at in LD, backfat and bacon, was significantly reduced. Overall, the present study suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may be enriched in pork by feeding tuna oil with few undesired side-effects, particularly those on sensory perception and shelf life, suggesting immediate consumption of the products is advisable. Most economically important traits (performance, slaughter and physical meat quality) remained unaffected.
Tuna Oil;Omega-3 Fatty Acids;Performance;Meat Quality;Sensory Evaluation;Pork;
 Cited by
Comparison of Sensory Traits and Preferences between Food Co-product Fermented Liquid (FCFL)-fed and Formula-fed Pork Loin,;;;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2007. vol.20. 8, pp.1272-1277 crossref(new window)
Backfat Characteristics of Barrows and Gilts Fed on Tuna Oil Supplemented Diets during the Growing-finishing Periods,;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2008. vol.21. 8, pp.1214-1219 crossref(new window)
The Effects of Excluding Animal Products from the Diet on Sensory Properties of Pork from Pigs Grown in New Zealand as Assessed by Singaporean Panelists,;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2010. vol.23. 1, pp.122-130 crossref(new window)
Factors Affecting the Eating Quality of Pork, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2008, 48, 7, 599  crossref(new windwow)
-3 fatty acid by tuna oil feeding of pigs: changes in composition and properties of bacon and different sausages as affected by the supplementation period, Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 2011, 91, 1, 87  crossref(new windwow)
-3-enriched pork, International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 2013, 49, 1, 42  crossref(new windwow)
Abell, L. L., B. B. Brodie and F. E. Kendall. 1951. A simplified method for the estimation of total serum cholesterol in serum and demonstration of its specificity. J. Biol. Chem. 195:357-366.

AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis (12th Ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.

AOAC. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis (16th Ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.

Biggs, H. G., J. M. Erikson and W. R. Moorehead. 1975. A manual colorimetric assay of triglycerides in serum. Clin. Chem. 21:437-441.

Bosi, P., H. J. Jung, In K. Han, J. A. Cacciavillani, L. Casini and S. Mattuzzi. 2000. Energy efficiency and nutrient deposition in early-weaned pigs, according to fat sources containing different acidic series. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 13:995-1002.

Busboom, J. R., D. C. Rule, D. Colin, T. Heald and A. Mazhar. 1991. Growth, carcass characteristics, and lipid composition of adipose tissue and muscle of pigs fed canola. J. Anim. Sci. 69:1101-1108.

Chae, B. J. and S. K. Mattuzzi. 2002. Rancid rice bran affects growth performance and pork quality in finishing pigs. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 15:94-101.

Falkenberg, H., K. Nurnberg, G. Kuhn and G. Nurnberg. 1995. Cholesterol in blood and fatty tissue and its relationship to carcass and meat quality of pigs. In: 2nd Dummersdorf Muscle-Workshop Proc. Muscle Growth and Meat Quality (Ed. K. Ender). Rostock, Germany: 161.

Farrell, D. J. and R. A. Gibson. 1991. The enrichment of eggs with omega-3 fatty acids and their effect in humans. In: Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia 1991 (Ed. D.J. Farrell). University of New England Press, Armidale, 256-270.

Fehily, A. M., L. B. Michael, K. Phillps and N. M. Deadman. 1983. The effect of fatty fish on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 38:349-351.

Folch, J., M. Lees and G. H. S. Stanley. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 226:497-509.

Hamazaki, T., S. Sawazaki, E. Asaoka, M. Itomura, Y. Mizushima, K. Yazawa, T. Kuwamori and M. Kobayashi. 1996. Docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil does not affect serum lipid concentrations of normalipidemic young adults. J. Nutr. 126:2784-2789.

Han, S. K. and K. Yamauchi. 2000. The effects of nitrite treatment on the lipid composition, fatty acid composition, and susceptibility to oxidation of pork biceps femoris muscle. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 13:1764-1769.

Harris, K. B., H. R. Cross, W. G. Pond and H. J. Mersmann. 1993. Effect of dietary fat and cholesterol level on tissue cholesterol concentrations of growing pigs selected for high and low serum cholesterol. J. Anim. Sci. 71:807-810.

Honikel, K. O. 1987. How to measure the water-holding capacity of meat? Recommendation of standardized method. In: Evaluation and Control of Meat Quality in Pigs? (Ed. P. V. Tarrant, G. Eikelenboom and G. Monin) Martinus Nijhoff, Publishers, The Hague, 129-142.

Huang, Z., H. Leibovitz, C. H. Lee and R. Millar. 1990. Effect of dietary fish oil on $\omega$-3 fatty acid level in chicken eggs and thigh flesh. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38:743-747. crossref(new window)

Hulan, H. W., R. G. Ackman, W. M. N. Ratnayake and F. G. Proudfoot. 1989. Omega-3 fatty acid level and general performance of commercial broilers fed practical levels of redfish meal. Poult. Sci. 68:153-162.

Irie, M. and M. Sakimoto. 1992. Fat characteristics of pig fed fish oil containing eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. J. Anim. Sci. 70:470-477.

Jakobsen, K. 1995. Possibilities of enriching meat with n-3 fatty acids. In: 2nd Dummerstorf Muscle-Workshop Muscle Growth and Meat Quality. (Ed. K. Ender). Rostock, 17-19th May 1995. Germany. pp. 141-148.

Jaturasitha, S. 2000. Meat Technology. Thanabun Press, Chiang Mai, Thailand. p. 244.

Jaturasitha, S., M. Kreuzer, M. Lange and P. Kohler. 1996. Quality of subcutaneous, intermuscular and intramuscular fat tissue using elevated quantities of medium chain fatty acids in pig fattening. Fett/Lipid 98:149-156. crossref(new window)

Jung, D. H., B. E. Biggs and W. R. Moorehead. 1975. Colorimetry of serum cholesterol with use of ferric acetate uranyl acetate and ferrous sulfate/sulfuric acid reagents. Clin. Chem. 21:1526-1530.

Kamopas, S. 2001. Effect of sexes on production performance, carcass, meat and fat quality of finishing pigs. M.Sc. thesis, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Kreuzer, M., M. M. Gerdemann and W. Reyer. 1997. Selective improvement of porcine fat firmness by a diet enriched in medium-chain fatty acids. Fett/Lipid 99:436-442. crossref(new window)

Kreuzer, M., H. Hanneken, M. Wittmann, M. M. Gerdemann, and A. Machmüller. 2002. Effect of different fiber sources and fat addition on cholesterol and cholesterol-related lipids in blood serum, bile and body tissues in growing pigs. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 86:57-73. crossref(new window)

Kroman, N. and A. Green. 1980. Epidemiological studies in the Upernavik district, Greenland. Incidence of some chronic diseases 1950-1974. Acta. Med. Scand. 208:401-406.

Layne, K. B., Y. K. Goh, J. A. Jumpsen, E. A. Ryan, P. Chow and M. T. Clandinin. 1996. Normal subjects consuming physiological levels of 18:3(n-3) and 20:5(n-3) from flaxseed or fish oils have characteristic difference in plasma lipid and lipoprotein fatty acid levels. J. Nutr. 126:2130-2140.

Leskanich, C. O., K. R. Matthew, C. C. Warkup, R. C. Noble and M. Hazzledine. 1997. The effect of dietary oil containing (n-3) fatty acids on the fatty acid, physicochemical, and organoleptic characteristics of pig meat and fat. J. Anim. Sci. 75:673-683.

Leszczynski, D. E., J. Pikul, R. A. Easter, F. K. McKeith, D. G. McLaren, J. Novakofski, P. J. Bechtel and D. E. Jewell. 1992. Characterization of lipid in loin and bacon from finishing pigs fed full fat soybeans or tallow. J. Anim. Sci. 70:2175-2181.

Li, D., Q. Qiao, E. W. Johnson, J. Jiang, F. Wang, R. Blum and G. Allee. 1999. Effect of L-carnithine and source of dietary fat on growth performance and serum biochemical parameters of piglets weaned at 35 days of age. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 12:1263-1272.

Lyso, A. and H. N. Astrup. 1987. Zusammenfassung von Versuchen über die Wirkung bestimmter Futterkomponenten auf die Stabilitat der Milch und des Schweinespecks. Fat Sci. Technol. 89:80-85.

McPherson, R., and G. A. Spiller. 1996. Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, New York, USA. 41-68.

Miller, M. F., S. D. Shackelford, K. D. Haydon and J. O. Reagan. 1990. Determination of the alteration in fatty acid profiles, sensory characteristics and carcass traits of swine fed elevated levels of monosaturated fats in the diet. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1624-1631.

Monahan, F. J., D. J. Buckley, P. A. Morrissey, P. B. Lynch and J. I. Gray. 1992. Influence of dietary fat and $\alpha$-tocopherol supplementation on lipid oxidation in pork. Meat Sci. 31:229-241. crossref(new window)

Morrison, W. R. and L. M. Smith. 1964. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and dimethylacetals from lipids with boron fluoride-methanol. J. Lipid Res. 5:600-608.

Myer, R. O., D. D. Johnson, D. A. Knauft, D. W. Gorbet, J. H. Brendemuhl and W. R. Walker. 1992. Effect of feeding higholeic-acid peanuts to growing-finishing swine on resulting carcass fatty acid profile and on carcass and meat quality characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3734-3741.

NRC (National Research Council). 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine (10th Ed.). Washington DC. National Academy Press. p. 190.

Pond, W. G., W. Insull, H. J. Mersmann, W. W. Wong, K. B. Harris, H. R. Cross, J. P. Smith, E. O. Heath and L. G. Komuves. 1992. Effect of dietary fat and cholesterol level on growing pigs selected for three generations for high and low serum cholesterol at age 56 days. J. Anim. Sci. 70:2462-2470.

Pongpiachan, P. 1996. Principle of Animal Feed (2): Applied Nutrition. Odianstore Press, Bangkok, Thailand. p. 211.

Public Health Policy and Planning Division. 1996. Statistic of Important Health Data 1994-95. Ministry of Health, Bangkok, Thailand.

Rattanawongpaisarn, N., P. Solam and P. Pimonpan. 1997. Use of fish oil supplementation in broiler ration. Special problem. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Thonburi University, Bangkok, Thailand. p. 87.

Romans, J. R., R. C. Johnson, D. M. Wulf, G. W. Libal and W. J. Costello. 1995. Effect of ground flaxseed in swine diets on pig performance and on physical and sensory characteristics and omega-3 fatty acid content of pork. I. Dietary level of flaxseed. J. Anim. Sci. 73:1982-1986.

Rossell, J. B. 1994. Measurement of rancidity. In: Rancidity in Foods (Ed. J. C. Allen and R. J. Mamilton). Blackie Academic & Professional, London, UK. 22-53.

Ruiter, A., A. W. Jongbloed, C. M. van Gent, L. H. J. C. Danse and S. H. M. Metz. 1978. The influence of dietary mackerel oil on the condition of organs and on blood lipid composition in young growing pigs. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31:2159-2166.

Sahaphong, S. 1990. Natural Treatment to Prevent an Arteriosclerosis. Rwoam-Trat Publisher's Office, Bangkok, Thailand. p. 109.

Sangsaraporn, Y. 1994. Effect of sardine oil supplementation in laying hen diet on yolk egg fat composition and performance. M.Sc. thesis, Department of Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Soler-Velasquez, M. P., J. H. Brendemuhl, L. R. McDowell, K. A. Sheppard, D. D. Johnson and S. N. Williams. 1998. Effect of supplemental vitamin E and canola oil on tissue tocopherol and liver fatty acid profile of finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 76:110-117.

St. John, L. C., C. R. Young, D. A. Knabe, G. T. Thomson, S. M. Grundy and S. B. Smith. 1987. Fatty acid profiles and sensory and carcass traits of tissues from steers and swine fed an elevated monounsaturated fat diet. J. Anim. Sci. 64:1441-1447.

Van Oeckel, M. J., M. Casteels, N. Warnants, L. Van Damme and Ch. V. Boucque. 1996. Omega-3 fatty acids in pig nutrition: Implications for the intrinsic and sensory quality of meat. Meat Sci. 44:55-63. crossref(new window)

Viriyajari, P. 1992. Analytical Method of Sensory Evaluation. Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. p. 275.

Voet, D. and J. G. Voet. 1990. Biochemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Singapore. p. 1223.

Warnants, N., M. J. Van Oeckel, and Ch. V. Boucque. 1996. Incorporation of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in pork tissues and its implications for the quality of the end products. Meat Sci. 44:125-144. crossref(new window)

Wolfram, G. 1989. Bedeutung der Omega-3-Fettsauren in der Ernahrung des Menschen. Ernahrungsumschau 36:319-330.