JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
The Foliage of Flemingia (Flemingia macrophylla) or Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) as a Substitute for a Rice Bran - Soya Bean Concentrate in the Diet of Lactating Goats
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
The Foliage of Flemingia (Flemingia macrophylla) or Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) as a Substitute for a Rice Bran - Soya Bean Concentrate in the Diet of Lactating Goats
Mui, Nguyen Thi; Ledin, Inger; Uden, Peter; Binh, Dinh Van;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Ninety lactating goats (Bachthao, Barbary, Beetal and Jamnapary breeds) were used in an experiment to investigate the replacement value of the tree fodders Flemingia (Flemingia macrophylla) and Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The foliages were used to replace the concentrate in diets based on chopped whole sugar cane (Sacharatum sp.), Para grass (Brachiaria mutica) and dried cassava root (Manihot esculanta). The concentrate was replaced by foliage of Jackfruit or Flemingia at 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% based on the crude protein (CP) content in the concentrate and foliages, respectively. Average milk yield was 1,617 g/day for goats fed Jackfruit compared to 1,532 g/day for those fed Flemingia. Increasing amounts of Flemingia foliage resulted in reduced dry matter intake and decreased milk yield but milk composition (CP, casein and fat content) was similar up to 60% replacement. Flemingia showed a poor potential as a supplement for lactating goats and replacement levels should not exceed 20% of the protein in the concentrate or 7.5% of the dry matter in the diet. With respect to the combination of milk production and net return over the control a CP replacement rate of 20% was the most promising. For Jackfruit there was similar feed intake and milk yield at a replacement level of 20% of CP in the concentrate (9.2% of DM intake) compared to the control diet. Milk yield at the level of 40% replacement (15% of the DM) in the diet was slightly reduced. Up to a level of CP replacement rate of 60% (21% DM in the diet) can be suggested for on-farm testing as a higher net return over the control was obtained on station.
 Keywords
Intake;Protein Replacement;Milk Production;Feed Cost;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Effect of Partial Replacement of Concentrates with Barhar (Artocarpus lakocha) Leaves on Growth Performance of Kids Fed a Mixed Jungle Grass-based Diet,;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2011. vol.24. 1, pp.45-55 crossref(new window)
 References
1.
Abdulrazak, S. A., J. O. Ondiek, J. Tuitoek and T. Fujihara. 2000. Replacement value of tree legume forage for nitrogen source in commercial diet for dairy goats in Kenya. Proceeding of 7th International Conference on Goats, Tours. France. p. 115.

2.
AFRC. 1998. Handbook of the Nutrition of Goats. AFRC Technical Committee on Responses to Nutrients. Report 10. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. pp. 92-97.

3.
Alam, M. R., M. A. Hup, M. R. Amin and M. A. Akbar. 1994. Evaluation of feeds and production potentials of goats. Bangladesh J. Anim. Sci. 35-42.

4.
AOAC. 1985. Official Methods of Analysis. 12th Edition. Association of Analytical Chemists. Washington DC.

5.
AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edition. Association of Analytical Chemists. Washington DC.

6.
Asare, E. O. 1985. Effects of frequency and height of defoliation on forage yield and crude protein content of Flemingia macrophylla (Flemingia). Proceedings of the XV International Grassland Congress. Kyoto, Japan. pp. 14-15.

7.
Audru, J., M. Labonne, H. Guerin and A. A. Bilha. 1991. A traditional forage species among the Afar of Djibouti. Legume trees and other fodder trees as protein sources for livestock. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 102:277-293.

8.
Barry, T. N. 1985. The role of condenced tannin in nutritional value of Lotus pedunculatus for sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 55:23-137. crossref(new window)

9.
Bates, D. B., G. A. Morantes and J. E. Moore. 1988. Nitrogen utilization of lambs fed limpograss supplemented with molasses-urea or legume protein supplements. Nutrition Reports International 38:487-499.

10.
Binh, D. V., N. P. Tien and N. T. Mui. 1998. Study on biomass yield and quality of Flemingia microphylla and on soil fertility. Proceedings of Workshop of Animal Nutrition Science. Ministry of Agriculture, Hanoi. p. 137.

11.
Dalzell, S. A., J. L. Stewart, A. Tolera and D. M. McNeill. 1998. Chemical composition of Leucaena and implications for forage quality. Proceeding on Leucaena-Adaptation, Quality and Farming Systems. ACIAR International Workshop. Hanoi, Vietnam. pp. 237-246.

12.
Devasia, P. A., C. T. Thomas and M. Nandakuram. 1976. Studies on feeding of goats. Evaluation of the nutritive value of Jackfruit leaves. Kerala J. Vet. Sci. 7:1-6.

13.
Devendra, C. 1991. Nutritional potential of fodder trees and shrubs as protein sources in ruminant nutrition. Legume trees and other fodder trees as protein sources for livestock. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 102:95-113.

14.
Devendra, C. and G. B. McLeroy. 1982. Goat and sheep production in the tropics. Intermediate Tropical Agriculture Series. Longman, London. pp. 61-72.

15.
Devendra, C. D. 1991. Milk and kid production from dairy goats in developing countries. Proceeding of the XXIII International Dairy Congress, Montreal. pp. 327-351.

16.
Devendra, C. D. 1995. Tropical legumes for small ruminants. Tropical legumes in animal nutrition. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

17.
Dicko, M. S. and L. K. Sikena. 1991. Feeding behaviour, quantitative and qualitative intake of browse by domestic ruminants. Legume trees and other fodder trees as protein sources for livestock. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 102:27-41.

18.
Dzowela, B. H., L. Hove, J. H. Topps and P. L. Mafongoya. 1995. Nutritional and anti-nutritional characters and rumen degradability of dry matter and nitrogen for some multipurpose tree species with potential for agroforestry in Zimbabwe. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 55:207-214. crossref(new window)

19.
Eknaes, M., S. Skeie, L. O. Eik and O. Havrevoll. 1998. Effect of different concentrate levels for grazing dairy goats on off flavour in goat milk. Nutrition of Sheep and Goats. Reports and Summaries of Short Papers. Cooperative FAO-CIHEAM Network on Sheep. Paris-Grignon. p. 63.

20.
Fassler, O. M. and C. E. Lascano. 1995. The effect of mixtures of sun-dried tropical shrub legumes on intake and nitrogen balance by sheep. Tropical Grasslands 29:92-96.

21.
Gilboa, N., S. Perevolotsky, S. Landau, Z. Nitsan and N. Silanikove. 2000. Increasing productivity in goats grazing Mediterranean woodland and scrubland by supplementation of polyethylene glycol. Small Ruminant Research 38:83-190. crossref(new window)

22.
Gonda, H. L., M. Emanuelson and M. Murphy. 1996. The effect of roughage to concentrate ratio in the diet on nitrogen and purine metabolism in dairy cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 64:27-42. crossref(new window)

23.
Gutteridge, R. C. and H. M. Shelton. 1994. The role of forage tree legumes in cropping and grazing systems. Forage Tree Legume in Tropical Agriculture. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. pp. 3-11.

24.
Gohl, B. 1981. Feed information summaries. Tropical Feeds (FAO). Rome. pp. 24-25.

25.
Hamid, N. 1992. Effect of tannin infusion on the utilization of various protein. FAO Network of Cooperative Research on Sheep and goats. Proceeding of the meeting of the Subnetwork Nutrition. Ostersund, Sweden. p. 34.

26.
Huq, M. A. and M. Saadullah. 1987. Ruminal dry matter and nitrogen degradability of common tree leaves and forages in Bangladesh. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. 4:44-47.

27.
Huy, L. K., L. V. An, N. T. H. Ly, T. P. Dao and N. H. Toan. 2000. Using the leguminous forages as protein source for feeding animals in small upland farming systems. Proceedings of National Workshop on Sustainable Livestock Production on Local resources. University of Agriculture and Forestry, Vietnam. pp. 1-4.

28.
Ibrahim, M. N. M., G. Zemmelink and S. Tamminga. 1998. Release of mineral elements from tropical feeds during degradation in rumen. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 11:530-537.

29.
ILRI. 1998. Economics of Small ruminant production. Small Ruminant Production Techniques. International Livestock Research Institute Training Manual 3. Addis Ababa. pp. 93-109.

30.
Islam, M., S. A. Chowdhury and M. R. Alam. 1997. The effect of supplementation of jackfruit leaves (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and mashkalai (Vigna mungo) bran to common grass on the performance of goats. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 10:206-209.

31.
Jackson, F. S., T. N. Barry, C. Lascano and B. Palmer. 1996. The extractable and bound condensed tannin content of leaves from tropical tree, shrub and forage legumes. J. Sci. Food Agric. 71:103-110. crossref(new window)

32.
Kawas, J. R., J. Lopes, D. L. Danelon and C. D. Lu. 1991. Influence of forage to concentrate ratios on intake, digestibility, chewing and milk production of dairy goats. Small Ruminant Research 4:11-18. crossref(new window)

33.
Kibria, S. S., T. N. Nahar and M. M. Mia. 1994. Tree leaves as alternative feed resource for black Bengal goats under stall-fed conditions. Small Ruminant Research 13:217-222. crossref(new window)

34.
Lanting, E. F. 1999. Using stylo CIAT184 to improve sheep production. Southeast Asia Feed Resource Research and Development Network 8:7-8.

35.
Leng, R. A. 1990. Factors affecting the utilization of poor-quality forage by ruminants particularly under tropical conditions. Nutrition Research Reviews 3:277-303. crossref(new window)

36.
Maasdorp, B. V. and B. H. Dzowela. 1998. Comparison of Leucaena leucocephala and other tree fodders as supplement for lactating dairy. Proceeding on Leucaena-Adaptation, Quality and Farming Systems. ACIAR International Workshop. Hanoi, Vietnam. pp. 291-293.

37.
McMeniman, N. P., R. Elliott and A. J. Ash. 1988. Supplementation of rice straw with crop by-products. I. Legume straw supplementation. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 19:43-53. crossref(new window)

38.
McNeill, D. M., N. Osborne, M. K. Komolong and D. Nankervis. 1998. Condensed tannins in the Genus leucaena and their nutritional significance for ruminants. Proceeding on Leucaena-Adaptation, Quality and Farming Systems. ACIAR International Workshop. Hanoi, Vietnam. pp. 205-214.

39.
Minitab. 1998. Minitab Software Release 12. Minitab Inc, 3081 Enterprize Drive, State College USA PA 16801-3008 814-238-3280. USA.

40.
Moseley, J. E., C. E. Coppock and G. B. Lake. 1976. Abrupt changes in forage-concentrate ratios of complete feeds fed ad libitum to dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 59:1471-1483.

41.
Nocek, J. E. and J. B. Russell. 1988. Protein and energy as integrated system. Relationship of ruminal protein and carbohydrate availability to microbial synthesis and milk production. J. Dairy Sci. 71:2070-2107.

42.
Richards, D. E., W. F. Brown, G. Ruegsegger and D. B. Bates. 1994. Replacement value of tree legumes for concentrates in forage-based diets. II. Replacement value of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium for lactating goats. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 46:3-65.

43.
Rusastra, I. W., S. H. Susilawati, G. S. Budhi and P. G. Grist. 1997. Biophysical and economic evaluation of hedgerow intercropping using SCUAF. Imperata Project Paper Improving Smallholder Farming Systems in Imperata Areas of Southeast Asia Lampung, Indonesia 7:11.

44.
Santini, F. J., C. D. Lu, M. J. Potchoiba and S. W. Colemen. 1991. Effect of acid detergen fibre intake on early postpatum milk production and chewing activities in dairy goat fed alfalfa hay. Small Ruminant Research 6:63-71. crossref(new window)

45.
Shayo, C. M. and P. Uden. 1999. Nutritional uniformity of crude protein fractions in some tropical browse plants estimated by two in vitro methods. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 78:141-151. crossref(new window)

46.
Skerman, P. J., D. G. Cameron and F. Riveros. 1988. Tropical Forage Legumes. Second edition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome. pp. 561-562.

47.
Susilawati, S. H., G. S. Budhi and W. Rusastra. 1997. Alley cropping farming systems in Indonesia (a review). Imperata Project Paper Improving Smallholder Farming Systems in Imperata Areas of Southeast Asia Lampung, Indonesia 7:20.

48.
Tuen, A. A., A. Djajanegara and A. Sukmawatian. 1994. Chemical composition and rumen degradability of forages and browse for goats and sheep in Sarawak. Sustainable Animal Production and the Environment. Proceeding of the 7th AAAP Animal Science Congrees. Bali, Indonesia. pp. 503-504.

49.
Van Soest, P. J. 1991. The Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. O & B Books. Corvalis, OR. pp. 337-348.