Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Quantification of Karanjin Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Raw and Detoxified Karanj (Pongamia glabra vent) Seed Cake
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Quantification of Karanjin Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Raw and Detoxified Karanj (Pongamia glabra vent) Seed Cake
Prabhu, T.M.; Devakumar, C.; Sastry, V.R.B.; Agrawa, D.K.;
  PDF(new window)
Various products of karanj (Pongamia glabra) are utilized for industrial, health and animal agriculture applications in the Indian subcontinent. Despite a rich source of protein (CP, 28-34%), karanj cake was found to be slightly bitter in taste and toxic owing to the presence of flavonoid (Karanjin), restricting its safe inclusion in the livestock diets. Feeding trials with raw cake revealed its poor palatability and adverse performance among different categories of livestock including poultry. The present study was, therefore, aimed to detoxify karanj cake by various physico-chemical methods like solvent extraction, water washing, pressure cooking and alkali and acid treatments. The level of residual karanjin in raw and variously processed cake was quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The raw expeller karanj cake was found to contain about 0.19% of karanjin. Though a non-polar solvent, soxhlet extraction of expeller pressed cake with petroleum ether drastically reduced karanjin content (0.01%). Soaking of cake for 24 h in 1% NaOH (w/w) solution was found to reduce karanjin to a major extent with little further benefit by increasing alkali level. Milder alkalies like lime and fertilizer grade urea reduced the karanjin levels marginally. Similar was the case with mineral acids such as HCl and glacial acetic acid. It was, therefore, concluded that solvent extraction of karanj seeds would be the best method of detoxification as well as for more recovery of oil and karanjin.
Karanj Seed;Karanjin;Detoxification;HPLC;Solvent Extraction;Alkali and Acid Treatments;
 Cited by
Pod and Seed Traits in Candidate Plus Trees of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre from Southern Peninsular India in Relation to Provenance Variation and Genetic Variability,;;;;

Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology, 2013. vol.16. 2, pp.131-142 crossref(new window)
Current Awareness, Phytochemical Analysis, 2002, 13, 4, 243  crossref(new windwow)
Studies on Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre leaves: understanding the mechanism(s) of action in infectious diarrhea, Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B, 2006, 7, 8, 665  crossref(new windwow)
) oil seed cake as partial protein supplement to soybean meal, Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2009, 93, 2, 237  crossref(new windwow)
Pod and seed traits in candidate plus trees of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre from southern peninsular India in relation to provenance variation and genetic variability, Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology, 2013, 16, 2, 131  crossref(new windwow)
Development and Validation of an LC-MS Method for Determination of Karanjin in Rat Plasma: Application to Preclinical Pharmacokinetics, Journal of Chromatographic Science, 2015, 53, 4, 456  crossref(new windwow)
Aneja, R., S. K. Mukerjee and T. R. Seshadri. 1958. Synthesis of Benzo-Furan derivatives. Tetrahedran 2:203-210. crossref(new window)

Aneja, R., R. N. Khanna and T. R. Seshadari. 1963. Kanjone-(6 methoxy-flavone), a new component of Pongamia glabra seeds. J. Chem. Soc. 163-168. crossref(new window)

Association of Official Analytical Chemistry, 1995. Official Methods of Analysis. (13th edn.) A.O.A.C. Washington, DC.

Bhar, R. and R. C. Katiyar. 1996. Effect of feeding alkali treated mahua (Bassia latifolia) seed cake on important rumen parameters (in vivo) and nutrient utilization in growing crossbred bulls. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 66:919-923.

Chandrasekaran, D., R. Kadirvel and K. Viswanathan. 1989. Nutritive Value of pungam (Pongamia glabra vent) cake for sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 22:321-325. crossref(new window)

Gowda, S. K., V. R. B. Sastry and R. C. Katiyar. 1998. Study on the utilization of neem kernal meal as a protein supplement for growing rabbits. Indian Vet. J. 75(3):281-282.

Gupta, B. S., J. P. Srivastava, A. K. Tripathi, A. K. Verma and S. Thakur. 1981. Biological evaluation of karanj (Pongamia glabra) cake. Indian J. Anim. Health. 6:75-77.

Joshi, D. C., R. C. Katiyar, N. C. Sharma and M. C. Prasad. 1990. Performance of crossbred bull calves fed alkai treated mahua (Bassia latifolia) seed cake. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. 7:245-250.

Katiyar, R. C., V. R. B. Sastry and D. K. Agrawal. 1991. Urea and alkali treated neem seed kernel cake as livestock feed. In: Ann. Rep. Anim. Nutr. Div., IVRI, Izatnagar, India.

Katiyar, R. C., V. R. B. Sastry and D. K. Agrawal. 1993. Nutrient utilization from alkali treated neem seed kernel cake by cattle and buffalo. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. 10(4):223-226.

Konwar, B. K. and G. C. Banerjee. 1987. Deoiled karanj cake (Pongamia glabra vent) a new feed ingredient in cattle ration. Indian Vet. J. 64(4):500-504.

Limaye, D. B. 1925. Karanjin part I: A crystalline constitutnet of the oil from Pongamia glabra. Proc. 12th Indian Acad. Sci. Congress. 118-125.

Ministry of Agriculture. 1992. All India Final estimates of principal crops. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, New Delhi.

Natanam, R., R. Kadirvel and K. Viswanathan. 1989. The effects of karanj (Pongamia glabra vent) cake on the performance of white leghorn pullets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 27:89-93. crossref(new window)

Rangaswami, S. and T. R. Seshadri. 1940. Pongamol a new crystalline compound from pongamia oil. Curr. Sci. 9:179-180.

Seshadri, T. R. and M. S. Sood. 1963. Photodynamically active plant products. Curr. Sci. 32:195-201.

Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Gochran. 1967. In: Statistical Methods (6th ed.) The Iowa state University, Iowa, USA.

Srivastava, J. P., B. S. Gupta, S. Thakur and A. K. Verma. 1990. Utilization of deoiled karnaj (Pongamia glabra) cake in kid grower rations. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. 7(1):15-20.

The Wealth of India: Raw materials. Vol. VIII (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi), 1969, 206-215.