Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Organic Trace Mineral Supplementation on Sows' Reproductive and Neonates' Growth Performance through 2 wk Postweaning
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Organic Trace Mineral Supplementation on Sows' Reproductive and Neonates' Growth Performance through 2 wk Postweaning
Acda, S.P.; Chae, B.J.;
  PDF(new window)
A feeding trial using sows and their neonates was conducted to determine the effects of source and level of organic trace mineral supplementation on reproductive performance of sows and the subsequent performance of their neonates through 2 wk post weaning. A total of 16 gestating sows (Yorkshire) in parities 2 to 4 were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments following a factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design. One of the two factors evaluated the effect of the source (inorganic vs organic), and the second factor evaluated the effect of the level (low vs high) of trace minerals added to the diet. The trace mineral premixes were formulated to provide a low concentration of trace minerals (50 ppm Fe/87.5 ppm Fe, 17.5 ppm Cu/85 ppm Cu, 45 ppm Zn/60 ppm Zn, and 20 ppm Mn/17.5 ppm Mn), and a high concentration of trace minerals (100 ppm Fe/175 ppm Fe, 35 ppm Cu/170 ppm Cu, 90 ppm Zn/120 ppm Zn, 40 ppm Mn/35 ppm Mn), when included at 0.20% in sows'/weaned pigs' diets, respectively. The total number born, total born alive and weaned, and the average neonate weight at birth were affected neither by the dietary source nor by the level of trace minerals (p>0.05), but an interaction effect (p<0.05) between the source and level of trace minerals was observed on the average weight at weaning. The neonates from sows fed the low level of organic trace minerals gained weight at an equal rate compared with those farrowed by sows fed the high level of inorganic trace minerals. Sows fed the organic trace minerals nursed their young with milk higher in Fe and Zn (p<0.05) compared with those fed diets with inorganic trace minerals. Consequently, the weaned pigs receiving the organic form of trace minerals tended to grow at a faster rate, consumed less feed and tended to utilize their feed more efficiently (p<0.10). It was further observed that the organic trace minerals significantly increased (p<0.05) Fe contents in the liver and serum, and Zn in the serum and bone. In conclusion, sows and neonates fed the organic minerals at low level showed similar performance compared with those fed the inorganic minerals at high level as specified in this study.
Trace Minerals;Organic Source;Reproductive;Neonates;Performance;
 Cited by
AAFCO. 1998. Official Publication of the Association of American Feed Control Officials Incorporated. (Ed. P. M. Bachman). pp. 237-238.

Ammerman, C. B., P. R. Henry and R. D. Miles. 1998. Supplemental organically-bound mineral compounds in livestock nutrition. In: Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition (Ed. P. C. Garnsworthy and J. Wiseman). Nottingham University Press, Loughborough, Leics. UK. pp. 67-91.

Apgar, G. A. and E. T. Kornegay. 1996. Mineral balance of finishing pigs fed copper sulfate or a copper lysine complex at growth-stimulating levels. J. Anim. Sci. 74:1594-1600.

Apgar, G. A. E. T. Kornegay, M. D. Lindemann and D. R. Notter. 1995. Evaluation of copper sulfate and a copper lysine complex as growth promoters for weanling swine. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2640-2646.

Cheng, J., E. T. Kornegay and T. Schell. 1998. Influence of dietary lysine on the utilization of zinc from zinc sulphate and zinc-lysine complex by young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1064-1074.

Close, W. H. 1998. The role of trace mineral proteinates in pig nutrition. In: Biotechnology in the Feed Industry (Ed. T. P. Lyons and K. A. Jacques). Nottingham University Press. Nottingham, UK. pp. 469-483.

Close, W. H. 1999. Organic minerals for pigs: an update. In: Biotechnology in the Feed Industry. (Ed. T. P. Lyons and K. A. Jacques). Nottingham University Press. Nottingham, UK. pp. 51-60.

Coffey, R. D., G. L. Cromwell and H. J. Monegue. 1994. Efficacy of a copper-lysine complex as a growth promotant for weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2880-2886.

Du, Z., R. W. Hemken, J. A. Jackson and D. S. Trammel. 1996. Utilization of copper in copper proteinate, copper lysine and cupric sulfate using the rat as experimental model. J. Anim. Sci. 74:1657-1663.

Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple F tests. Biometric. 11:1-12. crossref(new window)

Egeli, A. K., T. Framstad and D. Greeningen. 1998. The effect of peroral administration of amino-chelated iron to pregnant sows in preventing sow and piglet anaemia. Acta Vet. Scand. 39:77-87.

Fehse, R. and W. H. Close. 2000. The effect of the addition of organic trace elements on the performance of a hyper-prolific sow herd. In: Biotechnology in the Feed Industry (Ed. T. P. Lyons and K. A. Jacques). Nottingham University Press. Nottingham, UK. pp. 309-325.

Henry, P. R. C. B. Ammerman and R. D. Miles. 1989. Relative bioavailability of manganese in manganese-methionine complex for broiler chicks. Poultry Sci. 68:107-112.

Hill, G. M. E. R. Miller and P. K. Ku. 1983. Effect of dietary zinc levels on mineral concentration in milk. J. Anim. Sci. 57:123-129.

Hill, D. A., E. R. Peo, Jr., A. J. Lewis and J. D. Crenshaw. 1986. Zinc-amino acid complexes for swine. J. Anim. Sci. 63:121-130.

Hill, G. M., G. L. Cromwell, T. D. Crenshaw, C. R. Dove, R. C. Ewan, D. A. Knabe, A. J. Lewis, G. W. Libal, D. C. Mahan, G. C. Shurson, L. L. Southern and T. L. Veum. 2000. Growth promotion effects and plasma changes from feeding high dietary concentrations of zinc and copper to weanling pigs (regional study). J. Anim. Sci. 78:1010-1016.

Kirchgessner, M. and E. Grassmann. 1970. The dynamics of copper absorption. In: Trace Element Metabolism in Animals (Ed. C. F. Mills). Proc. WAAP/IBP Int. Symp. Abeerden, Scotland. pp. 277-287.

Kornegay, E. T. and H. R. Thomas. 1975. Zinc-proteinate supplement studied. Hog Farm Manage. Aug. pp. 50-52.

Lee, S. H., S. C. Choi, B. J. Chae, J. K. Han and S. P. Acda. 2001. Evaluation of metal-amino chelates and complexes at various levels of copper and zinc in weanling pigs and broiler chicks. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1734-1740.

MAF. 1999. A guide for quality control in animal feeds. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Seoul, Korea.

National Research Council. 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Pond, W. G., R. S. Lowrey, J. H. Maner and J. K. Loosli. 1961. Parenteral iron administration to sows during gestation or lactation. J. Anim. Sci. 20:747-750.

Pond, W. G., T. L. Veum and V. A. Lazar. 1965. Zinc and iron concentration of sow's milk. J. Anim. Sci. 24:668.

SAS. 1985. SAS user's guide: Statistics, SAS Inst. Inc., Cary. NC.

Smith, J. W. II, M. D. Tokach, R. D. Goodband, J. L. Nelssen and B. T. Richert. 1997. Effects of the interrelationship between zinc oxide and copper sulfate on growth performance of earlyweaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1861-1866.

Swinkels, J. W. G. M., E. T. Kornegay, W. Zhou, M. D. Lindemann, K. E. Webb, Jr. and M. W. Verstegen. 1996. Effectiveness of a zinc amino acid chelate and zinc sulfate in restoring serum and soft tissue zinc concentrations when fed to zinc-depleted pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 74:2420-2430.

Underwood, E. J. and N. F. Suttle. 1999. The mineral nutrition of livestock (3rd ed.). CABI Publishing. New York, NY.

Vandergrift, B. 1993. The role of mineral proteinates in immunity and reproduction. What do we really know about them In: Biotechnology in the Feed Industry (Ed. T. P. Lyons). Nicholasville, Kentucky. pp. 27-34.

Ward, T. L., G. L. Asche, G. F. Louis and D. S. Pollmann. 1996. Zinc-methionine improves growth performance of starter pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 74(Suppl. 1):182 (Abstr.).

Wedekind, K. J., A. J. Lewis, M. A. Giesemann and P. S. Miller. 1994. Bioavailability of zinc from inorganic and organic sources for pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. J. Anim Sci. 72:2681-2689.

Zhou, W., E. T. Kornegay, H. van Laar, J. W. G. M. Swinkels, E. A. Wong and M. D. Lindemann. 1994. The role of feed consumption and feed efficiency in copper-stimulated growth. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2385-2394.