Ait-Boulahsen, A., J. D. Garlich and F. W. Eden. 1989. Effect of fasting and acute heat-stress on body temperature, blood acidbase and electrolyte status in chickens. Comp. Biochem.Physiol. 94A:683-687.
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Council Secretariat. 1997. Japanese Feeding Standard for Poultry. 1997 ed. Tokyo, Japan. (in Japanese).
Arad, Z., J. Marder and U. Eylath. 1983. Serum electrolyte and enzyme responses to heat stress and dehydration in the flow (Gallus domesticus). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 74A:449-453.
Balnave, D. and I. Gorman. 1993. A role for sodium bicarbonate supplements for growing broilers at high temperatures. World's Poult. Sci. J. 49:236-241.
Bottje, W. G. and P. C. Harrison. 1985. The effect of tap water, carbonated water, sodium bicarbonate, and calcium chloride on blood acid-base balance in cockerels subjected to heat stress. Poult. Sci. 64:107-113.
Elborn, J. S., M. B. Finch and C. F. Stanford. 1971. Non-arterial assessment of blood gas status in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Ulster Med. J. 60:164-167.
Etches, R. J., T. M. John and A. M. V. Gibbins. 1995. Behavioural, physiological, neuroendocrine and molecular responses to heat stress. In: Poultry Production in Hot Climates (Ed. N. J. Daghir). CAB International. Wallingford, UK. pp. 31-65.
Darre, M. J., T. W. Odom, P. C. Harrison and F. E. Staten. 1980.Time course of changes in respiratory rate, blood pH, and blood $PCO_2$ of SCML hens. Poult. Sci. 59:1598.
Deaton, J. W., F. N. Reece, S. L. Branton and D. May. 1986. High environmental temperature and broiler livability. Poult. Sci. 65:1268-1269.
Deyhim, F. and R. G. Teeter. 1991. Sodium and potassium chloride drinking water supplementation effect on acid-base balance and plasma corticosterone in broilers reared in thermoneutral and heat distressed environments. Poult. Sci. 70:2251-2553.
Hocking, P. M., M. H. Maxwell and M. A. Mitchell. 1994. Haematology and blood composition at ambient temperatures in genetically fat and lean adult broilers females fed ad libitum or restricted throughout life. Br. Poult. Sci. 35:799-807.
Ilkiw, J. E., R. J. Rose and I. C. Martin. 1991. A comparison of simultaneously collected arterial, mixed venous, jugular venous and cephalic venous blood samples in assessment of blood gas status in the dog. J. Vet. Inter. Med. 5:294-298.
Iwasaki, K., R. Ikawa, H. Oyama, H. Horikawa and R. Oihi. 1997. Effects of glucose solution as drinking water on performance of broilers reared in summer season. Jpn Poult. Sci. 34:394-398. (In Japanese with English abstract)
Iwasaki, K., R. Ikawa, Y. Washio, H. Oyama and H. Horikawa. 1998. Effects of glucose in drinking water on feed intake, rectal temperature, plasma glucose, free fatty acids and mortality of broilers during high temperature exposure. Jpn Poult. Sci. 35:249-255. (In Japanese with English abstract)
Kelley, K. W. 1985. Immunological consequences of changing environmental stimuli. In: Animal Stress (Ed. G. P. Morberg). American Physiological Society. Maryland. pp.193-223.
Latshaw, J. D. 1991. Nutrition--mechanisms of immunosuppression. Vet. Immunopathol. 30:111-120.
Mather, F. B., G. M. Barnes and P. M. Burger. 1980. The influence of alkalosis on panting. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 67A:265-268.
Mitchell, M. A., S. T. Kettlewell and M. H. Maxwell. 1992. Indicators of physiological stress in broiler chickens during road transportation. Animal Welfare, 1:91-103.
Raup, T. J. and W. G. Bottje. 1990. Effect of carbonated water on arterial pH, $PCO_2$
, and plasma lactate in heat-stressed broilers. Br. Poult. Sci. 31:377-384.
Reece, F. N., J. W. Deaton and L. F. Kubena. 1972. Effects of high temperature and humidity on heat prostration of broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 51:2021-2025.
Regnier, J. A. and K. W. Kelly. 1981. Heat- and cold-stress suppresses in vivo and in vitro cellular immune responses of chickens. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 42:294-299.
SAS Institute Inc. 1982. SAS/STAT User's Guide: 1982 Edn. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina.
Siegel, H. S., L. N. Drury and W. C. Patterson. 1974. Blood parameters of broilers grown in plastic coops and on litter at two temperatures. Poult. Sci. 53:1016-1024.
Spolarics, Z. and J. J. Spitzer. 1993. Augmented glucose utilization and pentose cycle activity in hepatic endothelial cells following in vivo end toxemia. Hepatology, 17:615-620.
Subba Rao, D. V. S. and B. Glick. 1970. Immunosuppressive action of heat chickens. Proc.Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 133:445-448.
Sykes, A. H. and. A. R. A. Fataftan. 1986. Acclimatization of the fowl to intermittent acute heat stress. Br. Poult. Sci. 27:71-78.
Takahashi, K., M. Orihashi and Y. Akiba. 1999. Dietary L-arginine level alters nitric oxide and apha-1 acid glycoprotein concentrations, and splenocyte proliferation in male broiler chickens following Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide injection. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 124C:109-116.
Teeter, R. G. 1997a. Balancing the electrolyte equation. Feed Mix. 5:22-26.
Teeter, R. G. 1997b. The electrolyte: acid-base connection. Feed Mix, 5:32-34.
Teeter, R. G. and M. O. Smith. 1986. High chronic ambient temperature stress effects on broiler acid-base balance and their response to supplemental ammonium chloride, potassium chloride, and potassium carbonate. Poult. Sci. 65:1777-1781.
Teeter, R. G., M. O. Smith, F. N. Owens, S. C. Arp, S. Sangiah and J. E. Breazile. 1985. Chronic heat stress and respiratory alkalosis: occurrence and treatment in broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 64:1060-1064.
Thaxton, P. 1978. Influence of temperature on the immune response of birds. Poult. Sci. 57:1430-1440.
Zou, W. T. and S. Yamamoto. 1997. Effects of environmental temperature and heat production due to food intake on abdominal temperature, shank skin temperature and respiration rate of broilers. Br. Poult. Sci. 38:106-113.