Abdulrazak, S. A., E. A. Orden, T. Ichinohe and T. Fujihara. 2000a. Chemical composition, phenolic concentration and in vitro gas production characteristics of selected Acacia fruits and leaves. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:935-940.
Abdulrazak, S. A., T. Fujihara, T. Ondiek and E. R. ∅rskov. 2000b. Nutritive evaluation of some Acacia from Kenya. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 85:89-98.
Annison, E. F. and W. L. Bryden. 1998. Perspectives on ruminant nutrition and metabolism. I. Metabolism in the Rumen. Nutr. Res. Rev. 11:173-198.
AOAC .1990. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. 15th edn. Vol. II. Arlington, Virginia, U.S.A.
ARC. 1990. The Nutrients Requirements of Ruminant Livestock. Fourth edition, pp. 73-310. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK.
Fadel Elseed, A. M. A., A. E. Amin, Khadiga, A. Abdel Ati, J. Sekine, M. Hishinuma and K. Hamana. 2002. Nutritive evaluation of some fodder tree species during the dry season in central Sudan. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15:844-850.
Fonseca A. J. M., A. A. Dias-da-Silva and E. R. Orskov. 1998. In sacco degradation characteristics as predictors of digestibility and voluntary intake of roughages by mature ewes. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 72:205-219.
Getachew, G., H. P. S. Makkar and K. Becker. 2000. Effect of polyethylene glycol on in vitro degradability of nitrogen and microbial protein synthesis from tannin-rich browse and herbaceous legumes. Br. J. Nutr. 84:73-83.
Gutteridge, R. C. and M. Shelton. 1994. The role of forage tree legumes in cropping and grazing systems. In: (Ed. R. C. Gutteridge and M. Shelton) Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture, pp. 3-14. CAB International Wallingford, UK.
Hungate, R. E. 1966. The rumen and its microbes. Academic press, New York, San Francisco and London, p. 533.
Jolkumen-Tiito, R. 1985. Phenolics constituents in the leaves of northern willows: Methods for the analysis of certain phenolics. J. Agric. Food Chem. 33:213-217.
Kakengi, A. M, M. N. Shem, E. P. Mtengeti and R. Otsyina. 2001. Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal as a supplement to diet of grazing dairy cattle in semiarid western Tanzania Agrof. Syst. 52:73-82.
Khazaal, K. and E. R. Orskov. 1994. The in vitro gas production technique on its potential use with insoluble polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) for the assessment of Phenolics related anti-nutritive factors in browse species. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 47:305-320.
Kumar, R. and J. P. F. D’Mello. 1995. Anti-nutritional Factors in Forage Legumes. In: (Ed. J. P. F. D’Mello and C. Devendra) Tropical Legumes in Animal Nutrition. pp. 95-124. CAB International, Wallington, U.K.
Le Houerou, H. N. 1980. Browse in Northern Africa. In: (Ed. H. N. Le Houerou) Browse in Africa: The Current state of knowledge. pp. 55-82. ILCA Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Leng, R. A. 1990. Factors affecting the utilization ‘poor- quality’ forages by ruminants particularly under tropical conditions. Nutr. Res. Rev. 3:277-303.
Makkar, H. P. S. and K. Becker. 1996. A bioassay for polyphenols (tannins). Polyphenols communications 96, Bordenaux, France, July 15-18, 1996.
Makkar, H. P. S. and K. Becker. 1998. Do tannins in leaves of trees and shrubs from African and Himalayan regions differ in level and activity? Agrof. System. 40:59-68.
Makkar, H. P. S. 2000. Quantification of tannins in tree foliage. A laboratory manual for the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on ‘Use of Nuclear and Related techniques to Develop Simple Tannin Assays for Predicting and Improving the safety and Efficiency of Feeding Ruminants on Tanniniferous Tree Foliage’. Joint FAO/IAEA of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Animal Production and Health Sub-programme, FAO/ IAEA Working Document, IAEA Vienna, Austria, 2000, p. 26.
Makkar, H. P. S. and K. Becker. 1993. Behaviour of tannic acid from various commercial sources towards redox, metal complexing and protein precipitation assays of tannins. J. Sci. Food Agric. 62:295-299
Makkar, H. P. S., M. Blummel and K. Becker. 1995. Formation of complexes between polyvinyl polypyrrolidones or polyethylene glycols and tannins and their implication in gas production and true digestibility in in vitro techniques. Br. J. Nutr. 73:897-913.
Makkar, H. P. S., M. Blummel., N. K. Borrowy and K. Becker. 1993. Gravimetric determination of tannins and their correlations with chemical and protein precipitation methods. J. Sci. Food Agric. 6:161-165.
Mangan, J. 1988. Nutritional Effects of tannins in animal feeds. Nutri. Res. Rev. 1:209–231.
Menke, K. H. and H. Steingass. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim. Res. Dev. 28:7-55.
Norton, B. W. 1994. The nutritive value of tree legumes, In: (Ed. R. C. Gutteridge and H. M. Shelton) pp. 177-191. Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture. CAB International Wallingford, UK.
Orskov, E. R. and I. McDonald. 1979. The estimation of Protein degradation in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to the rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci. 92:499-503.
Otsyina, R. M., D. Asenga and M. Mumba. 1994. Tanzania International centre for research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) Agroforestry research project, Shinyanga, Agroforestry Research network for Africa (AFRENA), Annual Progress report. No. 96, p. 80.
Otsyina R. M, I. Issae and D. Asenga. 1997. Traditional grasslands and fodder management systems in Tanzania and potential for improvement. Proceedings of the International Centre Grassland Congress, Saskatoon, Ottawa, Canada, March 1997.
Porter, L. J., L. N. Hrstich and B. G. Chan. 1996. The conversion of proanthocyanidins and prodelphinidins to cyaniding and delphinidin. Phyt. Chem. 25:223-230.
Reed, J. D. 1986. Relationship among soluble phenolics, insoluble proanthocyanidins and fiber in east African Browse specie. J. Range Manag. 39:5-7.
Rubanza, C. D. K. 1999. The effect of Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) leaf meal supplementation on growth performance of cattle grazing on traditionally conserved forages (Ngitiri). MSc. Dissertation, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
SAS/Statview (1999) Using Statview. Statistical Analytical System (SAS) Inc. Third edition. SAS Inc, p. 288.
Shayo, C. M. and P. Uden. 1999. Nutritional uniformity of neutral detergent solubles in some tropical browse leaf and pod diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 82:63-73.
Shem, M. N., A. M. V. Kakengi and R. M. Otsyina. 1998. Effect of Leucaena Leaf meal supplementation on milk yield in the semi-arid tropics of Tanzania. British Society of Animal Science Occasional Publication, No. 21.
Tolera, A., K. Khazaal, E. R. Orskov. 1997. Nutritive evaluation of some browse species. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 69, 143-154.
Topps, J. H. 1992. Nutritive value of indigenous browse in Africa in relation to the needs of wild ungulates. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 69:143-154.
Van Soest, P. J. 1994. Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminants. Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London, p. 476.
Van Soest, P .J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch carbohydrates in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 3583-3597.
Woodward, A. and J. S. Reed. 1989. The influence of polyphenolics on the nutritive value of browse: A summary of research conducted at ILCA Bull. 35:2-11