Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Nitrogen Retention and Chemical Composition of Urea Treated Wheat Straw Ensiled with Organic Acids or Fermentable Carbohydrates
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Nitrogen Retention and Chemical Composition of Urea Treated Wheat Straw Ensiled with Organic Acids or Fermentable Carbohydrates
Sarwar, M.; Khan, M. Ajmal; Nisa, Mahr-un;
  PDF(new window)
The influence of varying levels of urea and additives on nitrogen (N) retention and chemical composition of wheat straw was studied. The wheat straw was treated with 4, 6 and 8% urea and ensiled with 1.5, 2 and 2.5% of acetic or formic acid and 2, 4 and 6% of corn steep liquor (CSL) or acidified molasses for 15 days. The N content of wheat straw was significantly different across all treatments. The N content of urea treated wheat straw was increased with the increasing level of urea. The N content was higher in urea treated wheat straw ensiled with acetic or formic acid as compared to urea treated wheat straw ensiled without these organic acids. The N content of urea treated wheat straw was further enhanced when it was ensiled with CSL or acidified molasses. This effect was significant across all levels of urea used to treat the wheat straw. Nitrogen retention in urea treated wheat straw was decreased linearly as the urea level was increased to treat the wheat straw. The N content was increased linearly when higher levels of CSL or acidified molasses were used to ensile the urea treated wheat straw. Most of the N in urea treated wheat straw was held as neutral detergent insoluble N (NDIN). The NDIN content was increased linearly with the increasing levels of urea and additives. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents were higher in urea treated wheat straw ensiled with acetic or formic acid as compared to urea treated wheat straw ensiled without additive. The NDF content further increased in urea treated wheat straw ensiled with CSL and acidified molasses. The entire increase in NDF content was because of fiber bound N. The hemicellulose content of urea treated wheat straw ensiled with CSL or acidified molasses was higher as compared to urea treated wheat straw ensiled with acetic or formic acid. The acid detergent fiber content of urea treated wheat straw ensiled with or without additives remained statistically non-significant. The cellulose contents of wheat straw was linearly reduced when urea level was increased from 4 to 6 and 8% to treat the wheat straw. This effect was further enhanced when urea treated wheat straw was ensiled with different additives. The results of the present study indicated that fermentable carbohydrates might improve the Nitrogen retention and bring the favorable changes in physiochemical nature of wheat straw. However, biological evaluation of urea treated wheat straw ensiled with fermentable carbohydrates is required.
Wheat Straw;Urea;Organic Acids;Fermentable Carbohydrates;Nitrogen Retention;Chemical Composition;
 Cited by
Effects of Replacing Ground Corn with Cassava Chip in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Utilization, Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Microbial Populations in Goats,;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2007. vol.20. 10, pp.1557-1566 crossref(new window)
Nutritional Management for Buffalo Production,;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2009. vol.22. 7, pp.1060-1068 crossref(new window)
Effect of Feeding Rubber Seed Kernel and Palm Kernel Cake in Combination on Nutrient Utilization, Rumen Fermentation Characteristics, and Microbial Populations in Goats Fed on Briachiaria humidicola Hay-based Diets,;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2011. vol.24. 1, pp.73-81 crossref(new window)
Effects of Dietary Crude Glycerin Supplementation on Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation, Blood Metabolites, and Nitrogen Balance of Goats,;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2014. vol.27. 3, pp.365-374 crossref(new window)
Chemical composition and feeding value of urea-treated corncobs ensiled with additives for sheep, Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 2005, 56, 7, 685  crossref(new windwow)
Feeding value of urea molasses-treated wheat straw ensiled with fresh cattle manure for growing crossbred cattle calves, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 2011, 43, 3, 543  crossref(new windwow)
Effect of feeding complete feed block containing rumen protected protein, non-protein nitrogen and rumen protected fat on improving body condition and carcass traits of cull ewes, Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2017, 101, 6, 1147  crossref(new windwow)
Ali, C. S., T. Khaliq and M. Sarwar. 1997. Influence of various sources of non-protein nitrogenous sources on in vitro fermentation pattern of rumen microbes. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 10:357

Ali, C. S., M. Sarwar, R. H. Siddiqi, R. F. Hussain, T. Khaliq, S. U. R. Chaudhry and A. R. Barque. 1993. Effect of urea treatment of wheat straw on disappearance and rate of passage through reticulo-rumen of buffalo. Pakistan Vet. J. 13:74.

Ali, C. S., V. C. Mason and J. Waagepeterson. 1977. The voluntary intake of pelted diets containing sodium hydroxide treated wheat straw by sheep. The effect of the alkali concentrations in the straw. Z. Tierphysiol. Tierernachr. Fultermitend. 39:173.

AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Analytical Chemists, 15th Ed. Arlington Virginia, USA.

Ashbell, G. and E. Donahaye. 1986. Laboratory trails on conservation of orange peel silage. Agric. Wastes. 15:133.

Ashbell, G., G. Pahlow, B. Dinter and Z. G. Weinberg. 1987. Dynamics of orange fermentation during ensiling. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 63:275.

Borhami, B. E. A., F. Sundstol and T. H. Garmo. 1982. Studies of ammonia treated straw. Fixation of ammonia treated straw by spraying with acids. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 7:53.

Brown, W. F., J. D. Phillips and D. B. Jones. 1987. Ammoniation or cane molasses supplementation of low quality forages. J. Anim. Sci. 64:1205.

Cann, I. K. O., Y. Kobayashi, M. Wakita and S. Hoshino. 1991. Digestion properties of ammoniated rice straw in the rumen and lower tract of sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 35:55.

Claete, S. W. P. and M. N. Kritzinger. 1984a. A laboratory assessment of various treatment conditions affecting the ammoniation of wheat straw by urea 1. The effect of temperature moisture level and treatment period. South African J. Anim. Sci. 14:55.

Claete, S. W. P. and N. M. Kritzinger. 1984b. Urea ammoniation compared to urea supplementation as a method of improving the nutritive value of wheat straw for sheep. South African J. Anim. Sci. 14:59.

Claete, S. W. P. and N. M. Kritzinger. 1984c. The fixation of NITROGEN in urea-ammoniated wheat straw by means of different acids. South African J. Anim. Sci. 14: 173.

Da-Silva, A. A., A. Mascarenhas Ferriera and C. V. M. Cudedes. 1988. Effect of moisture level, treatment time and soybean addition on the nutritive value of urea treated maize stovers. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 16:67.

Dass, R. S., A. K. Verma., U. R. Mehra and D. S. Saker. 2001. Nutrients utilization and rumen fermentation pattern in murrah buffaloes fed urea and urea plus hydrochloric acid treated wheat straw. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1542.

Dryden, G. and R. A. Leng. 1988. Effects of ammonia and sulphur dioxide cases on the composition and digestion of barley straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 19:121.

Dryden, G. and T. J. Kempton. 1983. Digestion of organic matter and nitrogen in ammoniated barley straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 10:65.

Garret, W. N., H. G. Walker, G. O. Kohler and M. Hart. 1979. Response of ruminant to a diet containing sodium hydroxide or ammonia treated rice straw. J. Anim. Sci. 48:92.

Hartley, R. D., G. Deschard and A. S. Keen. 1985. Effect of ammonia of the phenolic and other chemical constituents of cell walls of cereal straws in relation to wall bio-degradability and digestion by ruminants. In New Approaches to research on cereal carbohydrates. (Ed. R. D. Hill and L. Munch). Elsevier. Sci. Publishers B. V. Amsterdam. p. 319.

Hassoun, P., F. Geoffroy, G. Saminadin, P. prior and M. Beramis. 1990. Studies on the ammoniation of sugar cane bagasse by urea. Effects of moisture, urea levels, urease source and treatment periods on compositions, in vitro dry matter digestibility and evaluation of ureolytic bacteria. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol. 29:113.

Itoh, H., Y. Terashina, K. Udeya and Y. Tahashi. 1981. Nitrogen distribution in rice straw and rice hulls treated with sodium chloride and ammonia treatment of wheat straw. Voluntary intake and digestibility in cattle. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 14:81.

Khan, M. A., M. Sarwar and Mahr-un-Nisa. 2002. Influence of Enzose (Dextrose) on nitrogen Fixation in Urea Treated Corn Cobs and Performance of Cross Bred Cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. (submitted).

Lines, L. W. and W. P. Weiss. 1996. Use of nitrogen from ammoniated alfalfa hay, urea, soybean meal and animal protein meal by lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 79:1992.

Liu, J. X., N. Y. Xu, Y. M. Wu, X. M. Dai and Y. G. Han. 1991. Ammonium bicarbonate as a source of ammonia for up grading the feed value of rice straw. China Feed (Suppl.). p. 87.

Liu, J. X., Y. M. Wu. and N. Y. Xu. 1995. Effect of ammonium bicarbonate treatment on kinetics of fiber digestion, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization of rice straw by sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 39:211.

Nisa, M. 2002. Influence of feeding urea treated wheat straw with or with out con steep liquor on N fixation in wheat straw, in situ digestion kinetics, N metabolism and nutrient digestion in ruminall cannulated buffalo bulls. Ph. D. thesis, deparment of animal nutrition university of agriculture, faisalabad.

Man, N. V. and H. Wiktorsson. 2001. The effect of replacing grass with urea treated fresh rice straw in dairy diet. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 8:1090.

Mason, V. C., R. D. Harltye, A. S. Keene and J. M. Cobby. 1988. The effect of ammunition on the nutritive value of wheat, barley and oat straws. I. Changes in chemical composition in relation to digestibility in vitro and cell wall degradability. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 19:159.

Mehra, U. R., R. S. Dass, A. K. Verma and D. S. Sabu. 2001. Effect of feeding urea and acetic acid treated wheat straw on the digestibility of nutrients in adult murrah buffaloes (Babulus bubalis). Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1690.

Nelson, M. L., T. J. Klopfenstein and R. A. Britton. 1984. Protein supplementation of ammoniated roughages. I. Corncobs supplemented with a blood meal corn gluten meal mixturelamb studies. J. Anim. Sci. 61:1601.

Nelson, M. L., T. J. Klopfenstein, R. A. Britton and S. R. Lowry. 1985. Protein supplementation of ammoniated roughages in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 61:1567.

Oji, U. I. and D. M. Mowat. 1979. Nutritive value of thermo ammoniated and steam treated maize stovers. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 4:177.

Philip, L. E. L., Underhill and Garino. 1990. Effects of treating lucern with an inoculum of lactic acid bacteria or formic acid upon chemical changes during fermentation and upon nutritive value of the silage for lambs. Grass Forage Sci. 45:337-344 crossref(new window)

Reddy, D. N. and M. R. Reddy. 1985. Effect of ammoniated and processed cotton straw as sole source of roughage in complete feeds for crossbred milch cows. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 55:1082.

Reddy, D. N., M. R. Reddy and M. P. Ali. 1991. Effect of urea treated paddy straw to lactating crossbred cows on nutrient utilization and quantity and quality of milk production. Indian J. Dairy Sci. 44: 539.

Saadullah, M., M. Haque and F. Dolberg. 1981. Effectiveness of ammonification through urea in improving the feeding value of rice straw in ruminants. Tropical Animal Production. 6:30.

Sarwar, M., M. A. Khan and I. Zafar. 2002. Feed resources for livestock in Pakistan. Inter. J. Agri. Biol. 1:186

Sarwar, M. and M. U. Nisa. 1999. In situ digestion kinetics of Mott grass (Pennisetum purpuretum) on its chemical composition, dry matter intake, ruminal characteristics and digestibility in buffalo bulls. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 9:910.

Sarwar, M. and M. U. Nisa. 1998. Factors affecting passage rate in ruminant animals (A review). Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 12:16.

Sarwar, M., S. Mahmood, W. Abbas and C. S. Ali. 1996. In situ ruminal degradation kinetics of forages and feed byproducts in male Nili-Ravi buffalo calves. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 9:533.

Sarwar, M., M. A. Iqbal, C. S. Ali and T. Khaliq. 1994. Growth performance of buffalo male calves as affected by using cowpeas and soybean seeds as a source of urease during urea treated wheat straw ensiling process. Egyptian J. Anim. Prod. 2:179.

SAS. 1988. Statistical Analysis System. SAS user’s guide: Statistics, SAS Inst. Inc., Carry, NC.

Shah, F. H., Zia-ur-Rehman, A. Majid and A. D. Khan. 1981. Improvement in digestibility of rice straws by alkali treatment. Pak. J. Sci. Indust. Res. 24:199.

Solaiman, S. G., G. W. Horn and F. N. Owens. 1979. Ammonium hydroxide treatment on wheat straw. J. Anim. Sci. 49:802.

Stephanie, D. C. and L. R. Simon. 1992. Kinetic properties of helicobacter puloric urease compared with jack bean urease FEMS Microbial. Lett. 99:5-21

Taiwo, A. A., E. A. Adebowale, J. F. D. Greenhalgh and A. O. Akinsoyinu. 1995. Techniques for trapping ammonia generated from urea treatment of barley straws. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 56:133.

Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. 1984. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach (2nd Ed). McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., New York, USA.

Van Soest, P. J., H. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods of dietary fiber, NDF and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal material. J. Dairy. Sci. 74:3583.

Van Soest, P. J., A. M. Ferreira and R. D. Hartely. 1984. Chemical properties of fibre in relation to nutritive quality of ammonia treated forages. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 10:155.

Weiss, W. P., V. P. Colonbrander and V. L. Lechtenberg. 1982. Feeding dairy cows high moisture and alfalfa hay preserved with Anhydrous Ammonia. J. Dairy Sci. 65:1212.

Weixian, Z. 1995. Comparison of the nutritive value and economic benefit of straw treated with urea or anhydrous ammonia at different levels of supplementation. Internat. Conf. on Increasing Livestock Prod. with Local Resources. CECATFAO, Zhanjiang, China, 27-30 October 1995.

Williams, P. E. V., G. M. Innes and A. Brewer. 1984b. Ammonia treatment of straws via the hydrolysis of urea. 1. Additions of soybean (urease), sodium hydroxide and molasses; effects on the digestibility of urea treated straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 11:115.

Williams, P. E. V., G. M. Innes and A. Brewer. 1984a. Ammonia treatment of straw via the hydrolysis of urea. Effect of DM and urea concentrations on the rate of hydrolysis of urea. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 11:103.

Xu, N. Y., J. X. Liu, and Y. M. Wu. 1994. Studies on ammonia bicarbonate treatment of rice straw: effect of ammonia level, moisture content, treatment time and temperature on straw composition and degradation in rumen of sheep. Acta Zoonutrimenta. 6:10.

Yadav, B. S. and A. S. Virk. 1994. Effect of acid treatment in reducing ammonia loss during urea ammoniation of straw. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 64:762.

Zhang, W. 1995a. Comparison of the nutritive value and economic benefit of straw treated with urea or anhydrous ammonia at different levels of supplementation. The ‘International Conference on Increasing Livestock Production with Local Resources’. CECAT-FAO, Zhanjiang, China, (27-30 October 1995).

Zhang, W. 1995b. Comparison on the nutritive value of urea, liquid ammonia treated straw and analysis of feeding benefit at different supplement levels. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Increasing Animal Production with Local Resources, Zhanjiang, China, October, 1995.

Zhen, F., R. Lixian, L. Xiaobo and W. Xiaochun. 1995. The effect of the ammoniated wheat straw ensilage fodder on the performance of dairy cows. The Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Animal Production with Local Resources (July 23-25). Zhanjiang. p. 243.

Zorrilla-Rios, J., F. N. Owens, G. W. Horn and R. W. McNew. 1985. Effect of ammoniation of wheat straw on performance and digestion kinetics in cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 60:814.