Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Evaluation of Some Agri-industrial By-products Available in Samoa for Goats
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Evaluation of Some Agri-industrial By-products Available in Samoa for Goats
Aregheore, E.M.; Abdulrazak, S.A.; Fujihara, T.;
  PDF(new window)
Nutritional evaluation of some agro-industrial byproducts available in Samoa [dry brewers' grains (DBG), cocoa shell (CS), cocoa dust (CD) and desiccated coconut waste meal (DCWM)] available in Samoa was carried out using both the in vivo and in vitro techniques. In the in vivo study 24 Anglo-nubian goats were offered by-products with other feed ingredients to compound four different diets. The goats were randomly allocated to 4 diets on the basis of liveweight (18.7-0.3kg). The ADF content of the byproducts followed a similar trend to NDF. The byproducts have a high content of organic matter (91.0-95.4%). Gross energy (GE) content was higher in DCWM (25.1 MJ/kg DM), closely followed by CD (23.2 MJ/kg DM). Concentrate intake was significantly different (p<0.05) among the goats. Average daily live weight gains were 105, 92, 88 and 97 g/goat/day for DBG, CS, CD and DCWM, respectively. Daily live weight gains were higher (p<0.05) in the goats that received DBG, while the least gain was obtained in the goats that received CS byproduct diet. DM digestibility was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the goats on DBG diet than in the other goats. The least DM digestibility was obtained in the goats that received CD diet (p>0.05). CP digestibility followed a similar pattern to DM digestibility. The digestibility of NDF and ADF was influenced by the nature of the diets. The digestibility of OM and GE were best (p<0.05) in the goats that received DBG, DCWM and CS byproduct diets than in CD. Significant differences (p<0.05) among the byproducts were recorded for net gas production. Potential gas production (a+b) ranged from 7.064 to 42.17 ml. Organic matter digested (OMD) from gas production value at 24 h was higher in DBG (47.6 g/kg DM) and this was followed by DCWM (42.5 g/kg DM). The least OMD was obtained in CD (17.9 g/kg DM). A significant difference (p<0.05) in DM disappearance after 4, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h was recorded. The potential and effective degradability varied significantly (p<0.05) from 85.95-99.6 g/kg DM and from 39.9-65.8%, respectively. The digestibility of the byproducts in both the in vivo and in in vitro techniques demonstrated that they are potential source of feed ingredients for ruminant livestock in Samoa and possibly in the other small Pacific Island countries. On the basis of their potential degradability the byproducts could be ranked in the following order:DCWM>DBG>CD>CS. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that all the byproducts can contribute to ruminant livestock diets without adverse effects on feed intake, growth rate and apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients.
By-products;Intake;Goats;In vivo;In vitro Digestibility;
 Cited by
Abdulrazak, S. A., E. A. Orden, T. Ichinohe and T. Fujihara. 2000. Chemical composition, phenolic concentration and in vitro gas production characteristics of selected Acacia fruits and leaves. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13, No 7:935-940.

Abiola, S. S. and O. O. Tewe. 1990. Chemical evaluation of cocoa by products. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 68(4):335-336.

Aganga, A. A. and C. B. Monyatsiwa. 1999. Use of browses (Terminalia serecia, Combretum apiculatum or Euclea schimperi) as a supplement for growing Tswana goats. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 31(5):295-305.

AOAC. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis, 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.

Aregheore, E. M. 2000b. Traditional staple foods and some feedstuffs of the Pacific Islands: Their chemistry, biochemistry and nutrient composition: A Reference Manual, Department of Animal science, School of Agriculture, The University of the South Pacific, Apia, Samoa, p. 70.

Aregheore, E. M. 2000c. Chemical composition and nutritive value of some tropical by-product feedstuffs for small ruminants-in vivo and in vitro digestibility. Anim. Feed Sci. Techn. 85:99-109.

Aregheore, E. M. and T. Tunabuna. 2001. The utilization of diets containing increasing levels of dry desiccated coconut waste meal (DCWM) by growing crossbred Anglo-Nubian goats in Samoa. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14, 3:316-320.

Ash, A. J., L. Solomona and W. T. Waroka. 1992. Effectiveness of low-cost protein supplement for goats in the South Pacific. J. South Pac. Agric. 1. 3:55-58.

Blummel, M., H. P. S. Makkar, G. Chisanga, J. Mtimuni and K. Becker. 1997. The prediction of dry matter intake of temperate and tropical roughages from in vitro digestibility/gas production data, and the dry matter intake and in vitro digestibility of African roughages in relation to ruminant live weight gain. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 69:131-141.

Bovolenta, S., E. Piasentier, C. Peresson and F. Malossini. 1998. The utilization of diets containing increasing levels of dried brewers’ grains by growing lambs. Anim. Sci. 66:689-695.

Kumar, A. 2000. Energy and protein requirements of crossbred Anglo-Nubian goats in Samoa. B. Agric. Special Project. The University of the South Pacific, School of Agriculture, Apia, Samoa, p. 26.

McDonald, I. 1981. A revised model for the estimation of protein degradability in the rumen. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 96:251-252.

Menke, K. H. and H. Steingass. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim. Res. Dev. 28:7-55.

Montgomery, M. J. and B. R. Baumgardt. 1965. Regulation of food intake in ruminants. 1. Pelleted rations varying in energy concentration. J. Dairy Sci. 48:569-574.

$\Phi$rskov, E. R. 1991. Manipulation of fiber digestion in the rumen. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 50:187-196. crossref(new window)

$\Phi$rskov, E. R. and I. McDonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurement weighted according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 92:499-503 crossref(new window)

$\Phi$rskov, E. R., G. W. Reid and M. Kay. 1988. Prediction of intake by cattle from degradation characteristics of roughages. Anim Prod. 46:29-34.

Oyenuga, V. A. 1968. Nigeria’s Foods and Feeding-stuffs. Their chemistry and nutritive value 3rd ed. Ibadan Univ. Press. Ibadan, Nigeria. pp. 99.

Pirie, N. W. 1987. Leaf protein and its byproducts in human and animal nutrition. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, p. 84 (Chapter 8).

Preston, R. L., R. D. Vance and V. R. Cahill. 1973. Energy evaluation of brewers’ grains for growing and finishing cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 37:174-178.

Statistical Analysis Systems Institute Inc. 1988. SAS/STAT Program, Cary, NC:SAS Institute Inc.

Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597.