JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effect of Total Mixed Ration Particle Size on Rumen pH, Chewing Activity and Performance in Dairy Cows
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effect of Total Mixed Ration Particle Size on Rumen pH, Chewing Activity and Performance in Dairy Cows
Schroeder, M.M.; Soita, H.W.; Christensen, D.A.; Khorasani, G.R.; Kennelly, J.J.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Two experiments were conducted to determine effects of particle size in total mixed ration (TMR) on performance of lactating cows. Three rumen cannulated Holstein cows were used in a Latin square design for the metabolic experiment. The particle size of the diets was determined using the Penn State Particle Size Separator (PSPSS) and weighing the proportion of sample remaining on the top screen (19 mm diameter). The 3 treatments were short, medium or long diets (4.9, 24.2 and 27.8% of sample remaining on the top screen of the PSPSS, respectively). Nine farms in the Edmonton area were surveyed and the farms were placed into groups based on the particle size of the ration fed. The groups were short , medium 7-12% and long of sample weight remaining on the top screen of the PSPSS. Dry matter intake was greater (p=0.07) for the medium diet than the long diet in the metabolic study and resulted in a higher (p=0.07) efficiency of milk production. On the commercial farms, a significantly (p=0.002) lower milk fat percentage was observed for the long diet compared to the short diet. The results of these studies confirm that forage particle size influences milk composition and milk fat was negatively correlated to TMR particle size.
 Keywords
Lactation Performance;Forage Particle Size;Rumen Environment;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Rumen Fermentation and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Affected by Physical Forms and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw,;;;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2013. vol.26. 9, pp.1295-1303 crossref(new window)
 References
1.
Allen, M. S. 1997. Relationship between fermentation acid production in the rumen and the requirement for physically effective fiber. J. Dairy Sci. 80:1447-1462.

2.
Allen, M. S. and D. Beede. 1996. Causes, detection and prevention of ruminal acidosis in dairy cattle examined. Feedstuffs. 68:13-16.

3.
Beauchemin, K. A. 1991. Effects of dietary neutral detergent fiber concentration and alfalfa hay quality on chewing, rumen function, and milk production of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3140-3151.

4.
Beauchemin, K. A. and J. G. Buchanan-Smith. 1989. Effects of dietary neutral detergent fiber concentration and supplementary long hay on chewing activities and milk production of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 72:2288-2300.

5.
Beachemin, K. A., B. I. Farr, L. M. Rode and G. B. Schaalje. 1994. Effects of alfalfa silage chop length and supplementary long hay on chewing and milk production of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 77:1326-1339.

6.
Beauchemin, K. A. and L. M. Rode. 1993. Use of neutral detergent fiber in dairy cattle diet formulation. Agriculture Canada Research Station, Lethbridge, Alberta.

7.
Belyea, R. L., F. A. Martz and G. A. Mbgaya. 1989. Effect of particle size of alfalfa hay on intake, digestibility, milk yield, and ruminal cell wall of dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 72:958-963.

8.
Cheeke, P. R. 1999. Applied Animal Nutrition: Feeds and Feeding. 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall Inc. New Jersey.

9.
Ferreira, C. H., R. B. Moller and T. S. Stewart. 1980. Influence of dietary calcium and protein on fecal pH, consistency, and rate of passage in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 63:1091-1097.

10.
Fischer, J. M., J. G. Buchanan-Smith, C. Campbell, D. G. Grieve and O. B. Allen. 1994. Effects of forage particle size and long hay for cows fed total mixed rations based on alfalfa and corn. J. Dairy Sci. 77:217-229.

11.
Gaylean, M. L., D. G. Wagner and F. N. Owens. 1979. Level of feed intake and site and extent of digestion of high concentrate diets by steers. J. Anim. Sci. 49:199-203.

12.
Grant, R. 1998. Feeding to maximize protein and fat. Co-operative extension, Institute of Ag. and Natural Resources, Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln. Publication G90-1003.

13.
Grant, R. J. and V. F. Colenbrander. 1990. Milk fat depression in dairy cows: Role of silage particle size. J. Dairy Sci. 73:1834-1842.

14.
Griinari, J. M. and D. E. Bauman. 2001. Production of low fat milk by diet induced milk fa depression. In Advances In Dairy Technology 13:197-212.

15.
Griinari, J. M., D. A. Dwyer, M. A. McGuire, D. E. Bauman, D. L. Palmquist and K. V. Nurmela. 1998. Trans-octadecenoic acids and milk fat depression in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81:1251-1261.

16.
Hasegawa, N. and H. Hidari. 2001. Realationship among behavior, physiological states and body weight gain in grazing Holstein heifers. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 14(6):803-815.

17.
Heinrichs, A. J. 1996. Evaluating forages and TMRs using the Penn State Particle Size Separator. Penn-State Dairy and Animal Science Publication 96-20.

18.
Ishler, V. A. and R. S. Adams. 1999. Trouble-shooting problems with milk fat depression. Department of Dairy and Animal Science, Pennsylvania State University.

19.
Jordan, E. R. 1993. Management practices in the top milk producing herds in the US. In Advances in Dairy Technology, 5:1-11.

20.
Kaufmann, W. 1976. Influence of the composition of the ration and the feeding frequency on pH-regulation in the rumen and on feed intake in ruminants. Livestock Production Science, 3:103-114.

21.
Kennelly, J. J., B. Robinson and G. R. Khorasani. 1999. Influence of carbohydrate source and buffer on rumen fermentation characteristics, milk yield, and milk composition in earlylactation Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82:2486 – 2496.

22.
Khorasani, G. R. and J. J. Kennelly. 2001. Influence of carbohydrate source and buffer on rumen fermentation characteristics, milk yield, and milk composition in latelactation Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 84:(In press).

23.
Kraus, K. M., D. K. Combs and K. A. Beauchemin. 1999. Effect of corn processing and forage particle size on rumen pH in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82(Supp.)1:43.

24.
Mertens, D. R. 1997. Creating a system for meeting the fiber requirements of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 80:1463-1481.

25.
National Research Council. 1989. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 6th rev. ed. National Academy of Science, Washington, DC.

26.
Njoka-Njiru, E. N., J. M. Ojango, M. K. Ambula and C. M. Ndirangu. 2001. Grazing behavior of Saanen and Toggenburg goats in sub-humid tropical conditions of Kenya. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14(7):951-955.

27.
Okine, E. K., G. R. Khorasani and J. J. Kennelly. 1994. Effects of cereal grain silages versus alfalfa silage on chewing activity and reticular motility in early lactation cows. J. Dairy Sci. 77:1315-1325.

28.
Romond, M. B., A. Ais, F. Guillemot, R. Bounouader, A. Cortot, and C. Romond. 1998. Cell-free whey from milk fermented with Bifidobacterium breve C50 used to modify the colonic microflora of healthy subjects. J. Dairy. Sci. 81:1229-1235.

29.
Ruyet, P. L., W. B. Tucker, J. F. Hogue, M. Aslam, M. Lema, L. S. Shin, T. P. Miller and G. D. Adams. 1992. Influence of dietary fiber and buffer value index on the rumen milieu of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 75:2394-2408.

30.
SAS Institute Inc. 1996. $SAS^{\circledR}$ User's Guide: Statistics. Version 6.12 Edition. SAS System for Windows, Release 6.12, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.

31.
Wheeler, W. E. and C. H. Noller. 1977. Gastrointestinal tract pH and starch in feces of ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 44:131-135.