Alverdy, J. C. 1990. Effects of glutamine-supplemented diets on immunology of the gut. J. Parenter. Enter. Nutr. 14:109S-113S.
Arndt, H., F. Kullmann, F. Reub, J. Scholmerich and K. D. Palitzsch. 1999. Glutamine attenuates leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion in indomethacin-induced intestinal inflammation in the rat. J. Parenter. Enter. Nutr. 23:12-18.
Ayonrinde, A. I., I. H. Williams, R. McCauley and B. P. Mullan. 1995. Reduced plasma concentrations of glutamine and its metabolites in weaned pigs. In: Manipulating Pig Production V (Ed. D. P. Hennessy and P. D. Cranwell). Australasian Pig Science Association, Werribee, Australia. p. 179.
Burke, D. J., J. A. Alverdy and E. Aoys. 1989. Glutaminesupplemented total parenteral nutrition improves gut immune function. Arch. Surg. 124:2396-2399.
Dugan, M. E. R., D. A. Knabe and G. Wu. 1994. Glutamine and glucose metabolism in intraepithelial lymphocytes from preand postweaning pigs. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 109B: 675-681.
Dunsford, B. R., D. A. Knabe and W. E. Haensly. 1989. Effect of dietary soybean meal on the microscopic anatomy of the small intestine in the early-weaned pig. J. Anim. Sci. 67:1855-1863.
Hampson, D. J. 1986. Attempts to modify changes in the piglet small intestine after weaning. Res. Vet. Sci. 40:313-317.
Kitt, S. J., P. S. Miller, A. J. Lewis and R. L. Fischer. 2002. Effects of glutamine on growth performance and small intestine villus height in weanling pigs. Nebraska Agriculture Experiment Station Swine Report, 2002, pp. 29-32.
Krebs, H. 1980. Glutamine metabolism in the animal body. In: Glutamine: Metabolism, Enzymology and Regulation (Ed. J. Mora and R. Palacios). Academic Press, New York. pp. 319-329.
Lackeyram, D., X. Yue and M. Z. Fan. 2001. Effects of dietary supplementation of crystalline L-glutamine on the gastrointestinal tract and whole body growth in early-weaned pigs fed corn and soybean meal-based. J. Anim. Sci. 79 (Supp. 1): 322 (Abstr.).
Lee, D. N., Y. H. Cheng, B. J. Chen, I. T. Yu, C. W. Liao and H. T. Yen. 2002. Effect of dietary glutamine supplementation on the growth performance and immune response of early weaned piglets. J. Chin. Soc. Anim. Sci. 31: 99-110.
Lee, D. N., C. F. Weng, Y. H. Cheng, T. Y. Kuo, J. F. Wu and H. T. Yen. 2003. Dietary glutamine supplementation enhances weaned pigs mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1182-1187.
Liu, T., J. Peng, Y. Xiong, S. Zhou and X. Cheng. 2002. Effects of dietary glutamine and glutamate supplementation on small intestinal structure, active absorption and DNA, RNA concentrations in skeletal muscle tissue of weaned piglets during d 28 to 42 of age. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15:238-242.
Lund, P. 1983. L-glutamine and L-glutamate. 3th edn. Methods of Enzymatic Analysis Vol XIII. pp. 357-376.
Madej, M., T. Lundh and J. E. Lindberg. 1999. Activities of enzymes involved in glutamine metabolism in connection with energy production in the gastrointestinal tract epithelium of newborn, sucking and weaned piglets. Biol. Neonate 75:250-258.
Miller, B. G., P. S. James, M. W. Smith and F. J. Bourne. 1986. Effects of weaning on the capacity of pig intestine villi to digest and absorb nutrients. J. Agric. Sci. 107:579-585.
National Research Council. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 10th Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Pluske, J. R., I. H. Williams and F. X. Aherne. 1996. Maintenance of villous height and crypt depth in piglets by providing continuous nutrition after weaning. Anim. Sci. 62:131-144.
Pluske, J. R., D. J. Hampson and I. H. Williams. 1997. Factors influencing the structure and function of the small intestine in the weaned pig: a review. Livest. Prod. Sci. 51:215-236.
Rhoads, J. M., E. O. Keku, L. E. Bennett, J. Quinn and J. G. Lecce. 1990. Development of L-glutamine-stimulated electroneutral sodium absorption in piglet jejunum. Am. J. Physiol. 259: G99-107.
SAS Institute Inc. 1999. SAS/STAT User’s Guide: Release 6.12th edn. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina.
Souba, W. W. and T. R. Austgen. 1990. Interorgan glutamine flow following surgery and infection. J. Parenter. Enter. Nutr. 14:90S-93S.
Souba, W. W., K. Herskowitz, R. M. Salloum, M. K. Chen and T. R. Austgen. 1990. Gut glutamine metabolism. J. Parenter. Enter. Nutr. 14:45S-50S.
Spreeuwenberg, M. A. M., J. M. A. J. Verdonk, H. R. Gaskins and M. W. A. Verstegen. 2001. Small intestine epithelial barrier function is compromised in pigs with low feed intake at weaning. J. Nutr. 131:1520-1527.
Spurr, A. R. 1969. A low viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 26:31-43.
Stoll, B., D. G. Burrin, J. Henry, H. Yu, F. Jahoor and P. J. Reeds. 1998. Dietary amino acids are the preferential source of hepatic protein synthesis in piglets. J. Nutr. 128:1517-1524.
Szondy, Z. and E. A. Newsholme. 1989. The effect of glutamine concentration on the activity of carbamoyl-phosphate synthase II and on the incorporation of [3H] thymidine into DNA in rat mesenteric lymphocytes stimulated by phytohaemagglutinin. Biochem. J. 261:979-983.
Windmueller, H. G. and A. E. Spaeth. 1980. Respiratory fuels and nitrogen metabolism in vivo in small intestine of fed rats. J. Biol. Chem. 255:107-112.
Wu, G. and D. A. Knabe. 1994. Free and protein-bound amino acids in sow’s colostrum and milk. J. Nutr. 124:415-424.
Wu, G., D. A. Knabe, W. Yan and N. E. Flynn. 1995. Glutamine and glucose metabolism in enterocytes of the neonatal pig. Am. J. Physiol. 268:R334-342.
Wu, G., S. A. Meier and D. A. Knabe. 1996. Dietary glutamine supplementation prevents jejunal atrophy in weaned pigs. J. Nutr. 126:2578-2584.
Wu, G. 1998. Intestinal mucosal amino acid catabolism. J. Nutr. 128:1249-1252.
Yoo, S. S., C. J. Field and M. I. McBurney. 1997. Glutamine supplementation maintains intramuscular glutamine concentrations and normalizes lymphocyte function in infected early weaned pigs. J. Nutr. 127:2253-2259.