JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Relative Performance of Fattening Lambs on Raw and Processed Cottonseed Meal Incorporated Diets
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Relative Performance of Fattening Lambs on Raw and Processed Cottonseed Meal Incorporated Diets
Nagalakshmi, D.; Sastry, V.R.B.; Agrawal, D.K.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
In order to find the feasibility of feeding raw or processed cotton (Gossypium) seed meal (CSM), 30 male crossbred lambs were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments with 6 animals each. Lambs were fed each of the isonitrogenous and isocaloric concentrate mixtures containing 30% deoiled groundnut cake (DGNC) (reference diet), 40% raw, 45 minute cooked, 1% or iron (1 part free gossypol:0.3 parts iron) treated CSM (replacing about 50% nitrogen moiety of reference concentrate mixture). The concentrate mixture was fed to meet 80% of CP requirements (NRC, 1985) along with ad libitum maize (Zea mays) hay for 180 days. Incorporation of raw or processed CSM did not affect the palatability of diets as evidenced by higher (p<0.01) or comparable overall daily intakes of DM and protein (CP and Digestible CP) per kg by lambs in comparison to reference group. Intakes of DE and ME increased (p<0.01) due to inclusion treated CSM in diets, while the intakes were lower (p<0.01) on iron treated CSM based diet when compared with reference diet. The intakes of DM, CP, TDN, DE and ME by reference and experimental lambs were higher than the requirements stipulated by NRC (1985). The growth rate was highest (p<0.01) in lambs fed on diets with cooked CSM followed by those fed raw or treated CSM based diets. The growth of lambs fed on iron treated CSM diets was depressed (p<0.01) in comparison to that of other experimental lambs probably due to increased iron intake (889 mg/kg DM of diet) which was much higher than the toxic levels of 500 ppm (NRC, 1980). The lambs on various diets utilized DM with similar efficiency while the utilization of energy (TDN, DE and ME) was more efficient (p<0.01) when the diets contained raw or cooked CSM in comparison to that of reference diet. The lambs fed raw and treated CSM incorporated diets utilized DCP with higher (p<0.01) efficiency than the lambs fed reference diet. The feed cost per kg weight gain was lower (p<0.01) on raw, cooked and treated CSM based diets in comparison to reference diet. Cooking of CSM for 45 minutes further reduced the feed cost of weight gain.
 Keywords
Cottonseed Meal;Groundnut Cake;Gossypol;Lambs;Feeding Value;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
AOAC, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 15th Ed. (Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC. 2044).

2.
Baliga, B. P. and C. M. Lyman. 1957. Preliminary report on the nutritional significance of bound gossypol in cottonseed meal. J. Am. Oil Chemists Soc. 34:21-24. crossref(new window)

3.
Balogun, T. F., A. O. Aduku, N. I. Dim and S. A. S. Olorunju. 1990. Undecorticated cottonseed meal as a substitute for soyabean meal in diets for weaner and growing-finishing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 30:193-201. crossref(new window)

4.
Botsglou, N. A. 1991. Determination of 'Free gossypol' in cottonseed and cottonseed meals by Second-Derivative Ultraviolet spectrophotometry. J. Agric. Food Chem. 39:478-482. crossref(new window)

5.
Botsoglou, N. A. and D. C. Kufidis. 1990. Determination of total gossypol in cottonseed and cottonseed meals by Derivative UV spectrophotometry. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 73:447-451.

6.
Braham, J. E., R. Jarquin, L. G. Elias, M. Gonzalez and R. Bressani. 1967. Effect of calcium and gossypol on the performance of swine and on certain enzymes and other blood constituents. J. Nutr. 91:47-54.

7.
Calhoun, M. C., J. E. Huston, B. C. Baldwin, S. W. Kuhlmann, B. S. Engdahl and K. W. Bales. 1990. Performance of lambs fed diets containing cottonseed meal processed by different methods. J. Anim. Sci. 68(suppl 1):530

8.
Cronje, P. B. 1983. Protein degradability of several South African feedstuffs by the artificial fibre bag technique. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 13:225-228.

9.
Danke, R. J., R. J. Panciera and A. D. Tillman. 1965. Gossypol toxicity studies with sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 24:1199-1201.

10.
Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple 'F test'. Biometrics 11:1-42. crossref(new window)

11.
El Boushy, A. R., A. F. B. Van Der Poel and R. Raternink. 1989. Replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal and peanut meal or both in low energy diets for broilers. Poult. Sci. 68: 799-804.

12.
FAO. 1997. Cottonseed production. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO, Yearbook annuaire annuario Production, 44:46.

13.
Fiems, L. O., C. V. Boucque, B. G. Cottyn and F. X. Buysse. 1986. Cottonseed meal and maize gluten feed versus soybean meal as protein supplements in calf starters. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 36:731-740. crossref(new window)

14.
Fitzsimmens, R. C., M. Newcombe and T. E. Moul.1989. The long term effects of feeding ground and whole cottonseed to laying hens. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 69:425-429.

15.
Hennesy, D. W., G. J. Lee and P. J. Williamson.1983. Nitrogen loss from protein meals held in terylene bags in the rumen of cattle and the nutritive value of the residue. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 34:453-467. crossref(new window)

16.
Hollon, B. F., R. K. Waugh, G. H. Wise and F. H. Smith. 1958. Cottonseed meals as the primary protein supplement in concentrate feeds for young calves. J. Dairy Sci. 41:286-294.

17.
Huston, J. E., M. C. Calhoun and S. W. Kuhlmann. 1990. Comparative toxicity of gossypol acetic acid and free gossypol in cottonseed meal and cottonseed to lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 68 (Suppl. 1):401.

18.
Ikurior, S. A. and B. L. A. Fetuga. 1988. Equiprotein substitution of cottonseed meal for groundnut cake in diets for weanergrower pigs. J. Sci. Food Agric. 44:1-8. crossref(new window)

19.
Jarquin, R., R. Bressani, L. G. Elias, C. Tejada, M. Gonzalez and J. E. Braham. 1966. Effect of cooking and calcium and iron supplementation on gossypol toxicity in swine. J. Agric. Food Chem. 14:275-279. crossref(new window)

20.
Kandylis, K., P. Nikokyris, D. Liamadis and K. Deligiannis. 1992. Evaluation of cottonseed cake as feed ingredient for fattening sheep. J. Sci. Food Agric. 58:291-299. crossref(new window)

21.
Kearl, L. C. 1982. Nutrient Requirement of Ruminants in Developing Countries. International Feedstuffs Institute, Utah, USA.

22.
La Rue, D. C., D. A. Knabe and T. D. Tanksley. 1985. Commercially processed glandless cottonseed meal for starter, grower and finisher swine. J. Anim. Sci. 60:495-502.

23.
Lindsey, T. O., G. E. Hawkins and L. D. Guthrie. 1980. Physiological responses of lactating cows to gossypol from cottonseed meal rations. J. Dairy Sci. 63:562-573.

24.
Mc Ghee, F., C. R. Creger and J. R. Couch. 1965. Copper and iron toxicity. Poult. Sci. 44:310-312.

25.
Moise, L. A. and A. A. Wysocki.1981. The effect of cottonseed meal on growth of young horses. J. Anim. Sci. 53:409-413.

26.
Nagalakshmi, D. 1997. Utilization of undecorticated cotton (Gossypium) seed meal in the diets of growing lambs. PhD Theses, Indian Veterinary Research Institute. Izatnagar 243 122, India.

27.
Nagalakshmi, D., A. K. Sharma and V. R. B. Sastry. 2000. Pathological lesions in organs of lambs fed raw or processed cottonseed meal. Vet. Res. Comm. 42:349-359.

28.
Nagalakshmi, D., V. R. B. Sastry, D. K. Agrawal and R. C. Katiyar. 2001. Haematological and immunological response in lambs fed on raw and variously processed cottonseed meal. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14(1):21-29.

29.
NRC. 1980. Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA.

30.
NRC. 1985. Nutrient requirements of sheep. National Academy Press. Washington, DC.

31.
Orskov, E. R. 1982. Protein Nutrition in Ruminants, Academic Press, London.

32.
Papadopoulos, G., K. Fegeros and E. Ziras. 1987. Evaluation of Greek Cottonseed meal. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 18:295-301. crossref(new window)

33.
Rahma, E. H. and M. S. R. Narsinga. 1984. Gossypol removal and functional properties of protein produced by extraction of glanded cottonseed with different solvents. J. Food Sci. 49: 1057-1060. crossref(new window)

34.
Reid, B. L., S. Galaviz Moreno and P. M. Maiorino. 1987. Evaluation of isopropanol-extracted cottonseed meal for laying hens. Poult. Sci. 66:82-89.

35.
Reiser, R. and H. C. Fu. 1962. The mechanisms of gossypol detoxification by ruminant animals. J. Nutr. 76:215-218.

36.
Rogers, P. A. M., T. D. Henaghem and B. Sheeler. 1975. Gossypol poisoning in young calves. Ir. Vet. J. 29:9-13.

37.
Shah, F. H., W. H. Shah, M. Yasin and M. Abdullah. 1986. Detoxification of commercially produced cottonseed meal. Pakistan J. Scientific and Indus. Res. 29:380-382.

38.
Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1980. Statistical Methods, Oxford and IBH publications Co. New Delhi.

39.
Subba Rao, A., K. T. Sampath and S. R. Sampath.1989. In situ protein degradability of certain cakes in the rumen of cattle. Indian J. Dairy Sci. 42:18-22.

40.
Talapatra, S. K., S. C. Roy and K. C. Sen. 1940. Estimation of phosphorus, chlorine, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in food stuffs. Indian J. Vet. Sci. and Anim. Husbandry. 10:243-258.

41.
Tanksley, T. D. and D. A. Knabe. 1981. Use of cottonseed meal in swine rations. Feedstuffs. 53:24-25.

42.
Tanksley, T. D., D. A. Knabe, K. Purser, T. Zebrowska and J. R. Corley. 1981. Apparent digestibility of amino acids and nitrogen in three cottonseed meals and one soybean meal. J. Anim. Sci. 52:769-777.

43.
Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fibre, neutral detergent fibre and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3584-3597.

44.
Waldroup, P. W. 1981. Cottonseed meal in poultry diets. Feedstuffs. 53: 21-23.

45.
Ward, G. M. and F. B. Johnston. 1962. Chemical methods of plants analysis. 1064, Research Branch, Canada, Department of Agriculture (C.f. Gupta et al., 1992).