JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effect of Dietary Formic and Propionic Acids Mixture on Limiting Salmonella pullorum in Layer Chicks
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effect of Dietary Formic and Propionic Acids Mixture on Limiting Salmonella pullorum in Layer Chicks
Al-Tarazi, Y.H.; Alshawabkeh, K.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
This investigation was conducted to study the effect of dietary formic acid (FA) and propionic acid (PA) mixture on inhibitory effect of Salmonella pullorum in layer chicks. Nine groups of one day-old layer chicks in addition to positive and negative controls, were fed with acids treated feed containing mixture of different acids concentrations, from 0.5% and 0.5% up to 1.5% and 1.5% FA and PA, respectively. Positive and negative controls were fed untreated feed. Groups except the negative control were challenged orally on day three with cfu/ml S. pullorum. Cloacal swabs were taken at three successive days and at 7, 14 and 21 days of challenge. After 1, 2 and 3 weeks after challenge, 4 chicks from each group were sacrificed and crop and cecal contents were examined for S. pullorum and pH. The numbers of S. pullorum positive culture from the excretion of all treated groups except groups treated with mixture of 0.5% and 0.5%, 1% and 0.5%, 0.5% and 1% FA and PA decreased significantly (p<0.05) as compared with the positive control. The mortality rates of all treated groups except the group treated with 0.5% FA and 0.5% PA were decreased significantly (p<0.05) as compared with the positive control. The treatment significantly (p<0.05) lowered the pH of the crop and cecal contents in all groups except the group treated with 0.5% FA and 0.5% PA as compared with the control. Also, the treatment significantly (p<0.05) lowered the pH of the crop and cecal contents in all groups after three weeks of treatment compared to the first and second weeks. The treatments significantly (p<0.05) lowered the frequency of S. pullorum recovery from crop and cecal contents in six groups treated with 1.5 and 0.5, 1 and 1, 1.5 and 1, 0.5 and 1.5, 1 and 1.5, 1.5% and 1.5% FA and PA respectively. These results indicate that addition of FA and PA mixture in a total concentration of 2 % or more to the diet of newly hatched infected layer chicks significantly decreases the crop and cecal colonization by S. pullorum and significantly decreases S. pullorum fecal excretion and reduced the chick mortality rate.
 Keywords
Salmonella Pullorum;Formic Acid;Propionic Acid;Layer Chicks;Dietary;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Alshawabkeh, K. 1995. Protecting chicks from Salmonella gallinarum by oral administration of native aerobic microflora of chickens droppings. Dirasat, 22:805-814.

2.
Alshawabkeh, K. 1998. Effects of selected sugars on mortality, body weight and cecal colonization after infecting broiler chicks with Salmonella enteritidis. 25:357-361.

3.
Alshawabkeh, K. and M. J. Tabbaa. 2002. Using dietary propionic acid to limit Salmonella gallinarum colonization in broiler chicks. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15:243-246.

4.
Alshawabkeh, K. and M. Yamani. 1996. Prevalence of Salmonellae in poultry farms in Jordan. Dirasat, 23:67-72.

5.
Anderson, G. W., J. B. Cooper, J. C. Jones and G. L. Morgan. 1948. Sulfonamides in the control of pullorum disease. Poult. Sci. 27:172-175.

6.
Anderw, W. H., P. L. Poelina, C. R. Wilson and A. Romero. 1978. Isolation and identification of Salmonella In: Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Chapter 6, 5th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC. pp. 1-29.

7.
Barnhart, E. T., D. J. Caldwell, M. C. Crouch, J. A. Byrd, D. E. Corrier and B. M. Hargis. 1999. Effect of lactose administration in drinking water prior to and during feed withdrawal on Salmonella recovery from broiler crops and ceca. Poult. Sci. 78:211-214.

8.
Barrow, P. A. 1993. Salmonella control-past, present and future. Avian Path. 22:651-669. crossref(new window)

9.
Berchieri, Jr. A. and P. A. Barrow. 1996. Reduction in incidence of experimental fowl typhoid by incorporation of a commercial acid preparation (Bio-$Add^{TM}$) into poultry feed. Poult. Sci. 75:339-341.

10.
Calnek, B. W., H. Barnes, C. W. Beard, L. R. McDougald and Y. M. Saif. 1997. Pullorum disease and fowl typhoid, In: Diseases of Poultry, 10th ed., Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA. pp. 82-96.

11.
Cox, N. A. 1988. Salmonella methodology update. Poult. Sci. 67: 921-927.

12.
Gage, G. E. 1911. Notes on ovarian infection with Bacterium pullorum (Rettgar) in domestic fowl. J. Med. Res. 19:491-496.

13.
Hinton, M. and A. H. Linton. 1988. Control of Salmonella infection in broiler chickens by acid treatment of their diet. Vet. Rec. 123:416-421.

14.
Hume, M. E., D. E. Corrier, S. Ambrus, A. Hinton, Jr. and J. R. Deloach. 1993. Effectiveness of dietary propionic acid in controlling Salmonella typhimurium colonization in broiler chicks. Avian Dis. 37:1051-1056. crossref(new window)

15.
Iba, A. M. and Jr. A. Berchieri. 1995. Studies on the use of a formic acid-propionic acid mixture (Bio-Add TM) to control experimental Salmonella infection in broiler chickens. Avian Path. 24:304-311.

16.
Izat, A. L., N. M. Tidwell, R. A. Thomas, M. A. Reiber, M. H. Adams, M. Colberg and P. W. Waldroup. 1990. Effect of buffered propionic acid in diets on the performance of broiler chickens and on microflora of the intestine and carcass. Poult. Sci. 69:818-826.

17.
Junior, A. B. and P. A. Barrow. 1996. Reduction in incidence of experimental fowl typhoid by incorporation of a commercial formic acid preparation (Bio-$Add^{TM}$) into poultry feed. Poult. Sci. 72:339-341.

18.
McHan, F. and E. B. Shotts. 1993. Effect of short-chain fatty acids on the growth of Salmonella typhimurium in an in vitro system. Avian Dis. 37:396-398. crossref(new window)

19.
Nisbet, D. J., D. E. Corrier, C. M. Scanlan, A. G. Hollister, R. C. Beier and J. R. Deloach. 1994. Effect of dietary lactose and cell concentration on the ability of a continuous-flow-derived bacterial culture to control Salmonella cecal colonization in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 73:56-62.

20.
Oliveira, G. H., A. Jr. Berchier and P. A. Barrow. 2000. Prevention of Salmonella infection by contact using intestinal flora of adult birds and/or a mixture of organic acids. Brazilian J. Microbiol. 31:116-120.

21.
Oyofo, B. A., J. R. Deloach, D. E. Corrier, J. D. Norman, R. L. Ziprin and H. H. Hollenhauer. 1989. Effects of carbohydrates on Salmonella typhimurium colonization in broiler chicks. Avian Dis. 23:531-534.

22.
Quinn, P. J., M. E. Carter, B. K. Markey and G. R. Carter. 1994. Enterobacteriaceae. In: Clinical Veterinary Microbiology, M.Wolf, London, England. pp. 209-236.

23.
Rantala, M. and E. Nurmi. 1973. Prevention of the growth of Salmonella infantis in chicks by the flora of alimentary tract of chickens. Poult. Sci. 14:627-630. crossref(new window)

24.
Silva, E. N., G. H. Snoeyenbos, O. M. Weinack and C. F. Smyser. 1981. Studies on the use of 9R strain of Salmonella gallinarum as a vaccine in chickens. Avian dis. 25:38-52. crossref(new window)

25.
Smith, H. W. 1954. The treatment of Salmonella pullorum infection in chicks with furazolidone, sulphamerazine and chloramphenicol. Vet. Rec. 66:493-496.

26.
SPSS software. 2000. version 10.0, SPSS, Inc.

27.
Thompson, J. L. and M. Hinton. 1997. Antibacterial activity of formic and propionic acids in the diet of hens on Salmonellas in the crop. Br. Poult. Sci. 38:59-65. crossref(new window)